SectionsParticulars
Preamble
WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN, SOCIALIST, SECULAR, DEMOCRATIC, REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citi...
Part IThe Union And Its Territory
1Name and territory of the Union
-(1) India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States.(2) The States and the territories thereof shall be as specified in the First Schedule. (3) The territo...
2Admission or establishment of new States
- Parliament may by law admit into the Union, or establish, new States on such terms and conditions, as it thinks fit. ...
2A[Repealed]
3Formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States
- Parliament may by law. (a) form a new State by separation of territory from any State or by uniting two or more States or parts of States or by uniting any...
4Laws made under articles 2 and 3 to provide for the amendment of the First and the Fourth Schedules and supplemental, incidental and consequential matters
(1) Any law referred to in Article 2 or Article 3 shall contain such provisions for the amendment of the First Schedule and the Fourth Schedule as may be nece...
Part IICitizenship
5Citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution
At the commencement of this Constitution every person who has his domicile in the territory of India and - (a) who was born in the territory of India; or (b) ...
6Rights of citizenship of certain persons who have migrated to India from Pakistan
Notwithstanding anything in Article 5, a person who has migrated to the territory of India from the territory now included in Pakistan shall be deemed to be a...
7Rights of citizenship of certain migrants to Pakistan
Notwithstanding anything in Articles 5 and 6, a person who has after the first day of March, 1947,migrated from the territory of India to the territory now in...
8Rights of citizenship of certain persons of Indian origin residing outside India
Notwithstanding anything in Article 5, any person who or either of whose parents or any of whose grand-parents was born in India as defined in the Government ...
9Persons voluntarily acquiring citizenship of a foreign State not to be citizens
No person shall be a citizen of India by virtue of Article 5, or be deemed to be a citizen of India by virtue of Article 6 or Article 8, if he has voluntarily...
10Continuance of the rights of citizenship
Every person who is or is deemed to be a citizen of India under any of the foregoing provisions of this Part shall, subject to the provisions of any law that ...
11Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law
Nothing in the foregoing provisions of this Part shall derogate from the power of Parliament to make any provision with respect to the acquisition and termina...
Part IIIFundamental Rights
General
12Definition
In this part, unless the context otherwise requires, "the State" includes the Government and Parliament of India and the Government and the Legislature of eac...
13Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights Right of Equality
(1) All laws in force in the territory of India immediately before the commencement of this Constitution, in so far as they are inconsistent with the provisio...
14Equality before law
The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India. Prohibition of discriminatio...
15Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth
(1) The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them. (2) No citizen shall, o...
16Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment
(1) There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the State. (2) No citizen sha...
17Abolition of untouchability
"Untouchability" is abolished and its practice in any form is forbidden. The enforcement of any disability arising out of "Untouchability" shall be an offence...
18Abolition of titles
No title, not being a military or academic distinction, shall be conferred by the State. No citizen of India shall accept any title from any foreign State. No...
Right to Freedom
19Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc.
(1) All citizens shall have the right- (a) to freedom of speech and expression; (b) to assemble peaceably and without arms; (c) to form associations or union...
20Protection in respect of conviction for offences
(1) No person shall be convicted of any offence except for violation of the law in force at the time of the commission of the act charged as an offence, nor b...
21Protection of life and personal liberty
No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law. ...
22Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases
(1) No person who is arrested shall be detained in custody without being informed, as soon as may be, of the grounds for such arrest nor shall he be denied th...
Right against Exploitation
23Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labor
(1) Traffic in human beings and begar and other similar forms of forced labor are prohibited and any contravention of this provision shall be an offence punis...
24Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc.
No child below the age of fourteen years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment. Provided that nothing ...
Right to Freedom of Religion
25Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion
(1) Subject to public order, morality and health and to the other provisions of this Part, all persons are equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the r...
26Freedom to manage religious affairs
Subject to public order, morality and health, every religious denomination or any section thereof shall have the right- (a) to establish and maintain instituti...
27Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion
No person shall be compelled to pay any taxes, the proceeds of which are specifically appropriated in payment of expenses for the promotion or maintenance of ...
28Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions
(1)No religion instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds. (2) Nothing in clause (1) shall apply to an ...
Cultural and Educational Rights
29Protection of interests of minorities
(1) Any section of the citizens residing in the territory of India or any part thereof having a distinct language, script or culture of its own shall have the...
30Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions
(1)All minorities, whether based on religion or language, shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice. (1A) In m...
31[Repealed]
Saving of certain laws
31ASaving of laws providing for acquisition of estates, etc.
(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in Article 13, no law providing for (a) the acquisition by the State of any estate or of any rights therein or the exti...
31BValidation of certain Acts and Regulations
Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions contained in Article 31A, none of the Acts and Regulations specified in the Ninth Schedule nor any of th...
31CSaving of laws giving effect to certain directive principles
Notwithstanding anything contained in Article 13, no law giving effect to the policy of the State towards securing all or any of the principles laid down in P...
31D[Repealed]
Right to Constitutional Remedies
32Remedies for enforcement of rights conferred by this Part
(1) The right to move the Supreme Court by appropriate proceedings for the enforcement of the rights conferred by this Part is guaranteed. (2) The Supreme Cou...
32A[Repealed]
33Power of Parliament to modify the rights conferred by this Part in their application, etc.
Parliament may, by law, determine to what extent any of the rights conferred by this Part shall, in their application to,- (a) the members of the Armed Forces...
34Restriction on rights conferred by this Part while martial law is in force in any area
Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Part, Parliament may by law indemnify any person in the service of the Union or of a State or any...
35Legislation to give effect to the provisions of this Part
(a) Parliament shall have, and the Legislature of a State shall not have, power to make laws- (i) with respect to any of the matters which under clause (3) of...
Part IVDirective Principles Of State Policy
36Definition
In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires, "the State" has the same meaning as in Part III. ...
37Application of the principles contained in this Part
The provisions contained in this Part shall not be enforceable by any court, but the principles therein laid down are nevertheless fundamental in the governan...
38State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people
(1) The State shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which justice, social, e...
39Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State
The State shall, in particular, direct its policy towards securing- (a) that the citizens, men and women equally, have the right to an adequate means to livel...
39AEqual justice and free legal aid
The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice, on a basis of equal opportunity, and shall, in particular, provide free legal ...
40Organization of village panchayats
The State shall take steps to organize village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as unit...
41Right to work, to education and to public assistance in certain cases
The State shall, within the limits of its economic capacity and development, make effective provision for securing the right to work, to education and to publ...
42Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief
The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. ...
43Living wage, etc., for workers
The State shall endeavor to secure, by suitable legislation or economic organization or in any other way, to all workers, agricultural, industrial or otherwis...
43AParticipation of workers in management of industries
The State shall take steps, by suitable legislation or in any other way, to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings, establishme...
44Uniform civil code for the citizens
The State shall endeavor to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. ...
45Provision for free and compulsory education for children
The State shall endeavor to provide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all childr...
46Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections
The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, and, in particular, of the Scheduled C...
47Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health
The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primar...
48Organization of agriculture and animal husbandry
The State shall endeavor to organize agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall, in particular, take steps for preserving and i...
48AProtection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life
The State shall endeavor to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. ...
49Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance
It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interests, declared by or under law made by Parli...
50Separation of judiciary from executive
The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. ...
51Promotion of international peace and security
The State shall endeavor to - (a) promote international peace and security; (b) maintain just and honorable relations between nations; (c) foster respect for i...
Part IVAFundamental Duties
51AFundamental duties
It shall be the duty of every citizen of India- (a) to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the national Flag and the National A...
Part VThe Union
Chapter IThe Executive
The President and Vice-President
52The President of India
There shall be a President of India. ...
53Executive power of the Union
(1) The executive power of the Union shall be vested in the President and shall be exercised by him either directly or through officers subordinate to him in ...
54Election of President
The President shall be elected by the members of an electoral college consisting of the elected members of both Houses of Parliament; and the elected members...
55Manner of election of President
(1) As far as practicable, there shall be uniformity in the scale of representation of the d different States at the election of the President. (2) For the pu...
56Term of office of President
(1) The President shall hold office for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office: that - (a) the President may, by writing under h...
57Eligibility for re-election
A person who holds, or who has held, office as President shall, subject to the other provisions of this Constitution, be eligible for re-election to that offi...
58Qualifications for election as President
(1) No person shall be eligible for election as President unless he-  (a) is a citizen of India, (b) has completed the age of thirty-five years, and (c) is q...
60Oath or affirmation by the President
Every President and every person acting as President or discharging the functions of the President shall, before entering upon his office, make and subscribe ...
61Procedure for impeachment of the President
(1) When a President is to be impeached for violation of the Constitution, the charge shall be preferred by either House of Parliament. (2) No such charge sha...
62Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of President and the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy
(1) An election to fill a vacancy caused by the expiration of the term of office of President shall be completed before the expiration of the term.  (2) An el...
63The Vice-President of India
There shall be a Vice-President of India. ...
64The Vice-President to be ex-officio Chairman of the Council of States
The Vice-President shall be ex-officio chairman of the counsel of States and shall not hold any other office of profit: Provided that during any period when t...
65The Vice-President to act as President or to discharge his functions during casual vacancies in the office, or during the absence, of President
 (1) In the event of the occurrence of any vacancy in the office of the President by reason of his death, resignation or removal, or otherwise, the Vice-Presi...
66Election of Vice-President
(1) The Vice-President shall be elected by the members of an electoral college consisting of the members of both Houses of Parliament in accordance with the s...
67Term of office of Vice-President
The Vice-President shall hold office for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office: that -  (a) a Vice-President may, by writing un...
68Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of Vice-President and the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy
(1) An election to fill a vacancy caused by the expiration of the term of office of Vice-President shall be completed before the expiration of the term. (2) ...
69Oath or affirmation by the Vice-President
Every Vice-President shall, before entering upon his office, make and subscribe before the President, or some person appointed in that behalf by him, an oath ...
71Matters relating to, or connected with, the election of a President or Vice-President
(1) All doubts and disputes arising out of or in connection with the election of a president or vice-President shall be inquired into and decided by the Supre...
72Power of President to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases
 (1) The President shall have the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any ...
73Extent of executive power of the Union Council of Ministers
(1) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the executive power of the Union shall extend-  (a) to the matters with respect to which Parliament has po...
74Council of Ministers to aid and advise President
(1) There shall be a Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister at the head to aid and advise the President who shall, in the exercise of his functions, act...
75Other provisions as to Ministers
(1) The Prime Minister shall be appointed by the President and the other Ministers shall be appointed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister. (2...
The Attorney-General for India
76Attorney-General for India
(1) The President shall appoint a person who is qualified to be appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court to be Attorney-General for India.  (2) it shall be the...
Conduct of Government Business
77Conduct of business of the Government of India
(1) All executive action of the Government of India shall be expressed to be taken in the name of the President.  (2) Orders and other instruments made and ex...
78Duties of Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the President, etc.
It shall be the duty of the Prime Minister-  (a) to communicate to the President all decisions of the council of Ministers relating to the administration of ...
Chapter IIParliament
General
79Constitution of Parliament
There shall be a Parliament for the Union which shall consist of the President and two Houses to be known respectively as the council of States and the House ...
80Composition of the Council of States
(1) The Council of States shall consist of-  (a) twelve members to be nominated by the President in accordance with the provisions of clause (3);and (b) not ...
81Composition of the House of the People
(1) Subject to the provisions of Article 331 the House of the People shall consist of - (a) not more than five hundred and thirty members chosen by direct ele...
82Readjustment after each census
Upon the completion of each census, the allocation of seats in the House of the People to the States and the division of each State into territorial constitue...
83Duration of Houses of Parliament
(1) The council of States shall not be subject to dissolution, but as nearly as possible one-third of the members thereof shall retire as soon as may be on th...
84Qualification for membership of Parliament
A person shall not be qualified to be chosen to fill a seat in Parliament unless he- (a) is a citizen of India, and makes and subscribes before some person au...
85Sessions of Parliament, prorogation and dissolution
(1) The President shall form time to time summon each House of Parliament to meet at such time and place as he thinks fit, but six months shall not intervene ...
86Right of President to address and send messages to Houses
 (1) The President may address either House of Parliament or both Houses assembled together, and for that purpose require the attendance of members. (2) The P...
87Special address by the President
 (1) At the commencement of the first session after each general election to the House of the People and at the commencement of the first session of each year...
88Rights of Ministers and Attorney-General as respects Houses Officers of Parliament
Every Minister and the Attorney-General of India shall have the right to speak in, and otherwise to take part in the proceedings of either House, any joint si...
89The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Council of States
(1) The Vice-President of India shall be ex-officio Chairman of the Council of States.  (2) The council of States shall, as soon as may be, choose a member of...
90Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the office of Deputy Chairman
A member holding office as Deputy chairman of the Council of States-  (a) shall vacate his office if he cease to be a member of the Council; (b) may at any t...
91Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Chairman
(1) While the office of Chairman is vacant, or during any period when the vice-President is acting as, or discharging the functions of, President, the duties ...
92The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration
(1) At any sitting of the Council of States, while any resolution for the removal of the Vice-President from his office is under consideration, the Chairman, ...
93The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the House of the People
The House of the People shall, as soon as may be, choose two members of the House to be respectively Speaker and Deputy Speaker thereof and, so often as the o...
94Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker and Deputy Speaker
A member holding office as Speaker or Deputy Speaker of the House of the People-  (a) shall vacate his office if he ceases to be a member of the House of the ...
95Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Speaker
(1) While the office of Speaker is vacant, the duties of the office shall be performed by the Deputy Speaker or, if the office of Deputy Speaker is also vacan...
96The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration
(1) At any sitting of the House of the People, while any resolution for the removal of the Speaker from his office is under consideration, the Speaker, or whi...
97Salaries and allowances of the Chairman and Deputy Chairman and the Speaker and Deputy Speaker
There shall be paid to the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the council of States, and to the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the House of the People, su...
98Secretariat of Parliament
(1) Each House of Parliament shall have a separate secretariat staff: Provided that nothing in this clause shall be construed as preventing the creation of po...
Conduct of Business
99Oath or affirmation by members
Every member of either House of Parliament shall, before taking his seat, make and subscribe before the President, or some person appointed in that behalf by ...
100Voting in Houses, power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum
(1) Save as otherwise provided in this Constitution, all questions at any sitting of either House or joint sitting of the Houses shall be determined by a majo...
Disqualifications of Members
101Vacation of seats
(1) No person shall be a member of both Houses of Parliament and provision shall be made by Parliament by law for the vacation by a person who is chosen a mem...
102Disqualifications for membership
 (1) A person shall be disqualified for being chosen as, and for being, a member of either House of Parliament-  (a) if he holds any office of profit under th...
103Decision on questions as to disqualifications of members
(1) If any question arises as to whether a member of either House of Parliament has become subject to any of the disqualifications mentioned in clause (1) o...
104Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation under article 99 or when not qualified or when disqualified Powers, Privileges and Immunities of Parliament and its Members
If a person sits or votes as a member of either House of Parliament before he has complied with the requirements of Article 99, or when he knows that he is no...
105Powers, privileges, etc. of the Houses of Parliament and of the members and committees thereof
(1) Subject to the provisions of this constitution and the rules and standing orders regulating the procedure of Parliament, there shall be freedom of speech ...
106Salaries and allowances of members
Members of either House of Parliament shall be entitled to receive such salaries and allowances as may from time to time be determined by Parliament by law an...
Legislative Procedure
107Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills
(1) Subject to the provisions of Articles 109 and 117 with respect to Money Bills and other financial Bills, a Bill may originate in either House of Parliamen...
108Joint sitting of both Houses in certain cases
(1) If after a Bill has been passed by one House and transmitted to the other House- (a) the Bill is rejected by the other House; or (b) the Houses have fina...
109Special procedure in respect of Money Bills
(1) A Money Bill shall not be introduced in the Council of States.  (2) After a Money Bill has been passed by the House of the People it shall be transmitted ...
110Definition of Money Bill
(1) For the purposes of this Chapter, a Bill shall be deemed to be a Money Bill if it contains only provisions dealing with all or any of the following matter...
111Assent to Bills
When a Bill has been passed by the Houses of Parliament, it shall be presented to the President, and the President shall declare either that he assents to th...
Procedures in Financial Matters
112Annual financial statement
(1) The President shall in respect of every financial year cause to be laid before both the Houses of Parliament a statement of the estimated receipts and exp...
113Procedure in Parliament with respect to estimates
(1) So much of the estimates as relates to expenditure charged upon the Consolidated Fund of India shall not be submitted to the vote of Parliament, but nothi...
114Appropriation Bills
(1) As soon as may be after the grants under article 113 have been made by the House of the People, there shall be introduced a Bill to provide for the approp...
115Supplementary, additional or excess grants
(1) The President shall- (a) If the amount authorized by any law made in accordance with the provisions of article 114 to be expended for a particular servic...
116Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants
(1) Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Chapter, the House of the People shall have power- (a) to make any grant in advance in respec...
117Special provisions as to financial Bills
(1) A Bill or amendment making provision for any of the matters specified in sub-clauses (a) to (f) of clause (1) of article 110 shall not be introduced or mo...
Procedure Generally
118Rules of procedure
(1) Each House of Parliament may make rules for regulations, subject to the provisions of this Constitution, its procedure and the conduct of its business. (2...
119Regulation by law of procedure in Parliament in relation to financial business
Parliament may, for the purpose of the timely completion of financial business, regulate by law the procedure of, and the conduct of business in, each House o...
120Language to be used in Parliament
(1) Notwithstanding anything in Part XVII, but subject to the Article 348, business in Parliament shall be transacted in Hindi or in English: Provided that th...
121Restriction on discussion in Parliament
No discussions shall take place in Parliament with respect to the conduct of any Judge of the Supreme Court or of a High Court in the discharge of his duties ...
122Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Parliament
(1) The validity of any proceedings in Parliament shall not be called in question on the ground of any alleged irregularity of procedure.  (2) No officer or m...
Chapter IIILegislative Powers Of The President
123Power of President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Parliament
(1) If at any time, except when both Houses of Parliament are in session, the President is satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary for hi...
Chapter IVThe Union Judiciary
124Establishment and Constitution of Supreme Court
(1) There shall be a Supreme Court of India constituting of a Chief Justice of India and, until Parliament by law prescribes a larger number, of not more than...
125Salaries, etc., of Judges
(1) There shall be paid to the Judges of the Supreme Court such salaries as may be determined by Parliament by law and, until provision in that behalf is so m...
126Appointment of acting Chief Justice
When the office of Chief Justice of India is vacant or when the Chief Justice is, by reason or absence or otherwise, unable to perform the duties of his offic...
127Appointment of ad hoc Judges
(1) If at any time there should not be a quorum of the Judges of the Supreme Court available to hold or continue any session of the Court, the Chief Justice ...
128Attendance of retired Judges at sittings of the Supreme Court
Notwithstanding anything in this chapter, the Chief Justice of India may at any time, with the previous consent of the president, request any person who has h...
129Supreme Court to be a court of record
The Supreme Court shall be a court of record and shall have all the powers of such a court including the power to punish for contempt of itself.  ...
130Seat of Supreme Court
The Supreme Court shall sit in Delhi or in such other place or places, as the Chief Justice of India may, with the approval of the President, from time to tim...
131Original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court
Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the Supreme Court shall, to the exclusion of any other court, have original jurisdiction in any dispute-  (a) ...
131A[Repealed]
132Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Courts in certain cases
(1) An appeal shall lie to the Supreme Court from any judgment, decree or final order of a High Court in the territory of India, whether in a civil, criminal ...
133Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Courts in regard to civil matters
(1) An appeal shall lie to the Supreme Court from any judgment, decree or final order in a civil proceeding of a High Court in the territory of India if the H...
134Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in regard to criminal matters
(1) An appeal shall lie to the Supreme Court from any judgment, final order or sentence in a criminal proceeding of a High Court in the territory of India if ...
134ACertificate for appeal to the Supreme Court
Every High Court, passing or making a judgment, decree, final order, or sentence, referred to in clause (1) of Article 132 or clause (1) of Article 133, or cl...
135Jurisdiction and powers of the Federal Court under existing law to be exercisable by the Supreme Court
Until Parliament by law otherwise provides, the Supreme Court shall also have jurisdiction and powers with respect to any matter to which the provisions of Ar...
136Special leave to appeal by the Supreme Court
(1) Notwithstanding anything in this Chapter, the Supreme Court may, in its discretion, grant special leave to appeal from any judgment, decree, determination...
137Review of judgments or orders by the Supreme Court
Subject to the provisions of any law made by Parliament or any rules made under Article 145, the Supreme Court shall have power to review any judgment pronoun...
138Enlargement of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court
(1) The Supreme Court shall have such further jurisdiction and powers with respect to any of the matters in the Union List as Parliament may by law confer.  (...
139Conferment on the Supreme Court of powers to issue certain writs
Parliament may by law confer on the Supreme Court power to issue directions, orders or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohib...
139ATransfer of certain cases
(1) Where cases involving the same or substantially the same questions of law are pending before the Supreme Court and one or more High Courts or before two o...
140Ancillary powers of Supreme Court
Parliament may by law make provision for conferring upon the Supreme Court such supplemental powers not inconsistent with any of the provisions of this Cons...
141Law declared by Supreme Court to be binding on all courts
The law declared by the Supreme Court shall be binding on all courts within the territory of India.  ...
142Enforcement of decrees and orders of Supreme Court and orders as to discovery, etc.
(1) The Supreme Court in the exercise of its jurisdiction may pass such decree or make such order as is necessary for doing complete justice in any cause or m...
143Power of President to consult Supreme Court
(1) If at any time it appears to the President that a question of law or fact has arisen, or is likely to arise, which is of such a nature and of such public ...
144Civil and judicial authorities to act in aid of the Supreme Court
All authorities, civil and judicial, in the territory of India shall act in aid of the Supreme Court.  ...
144A[Repealed]
145Rules of court, etc.
(1) Subject to the provisions of any law made by Parliament the Supreme Court may from time to time, with the approval of the President, make rules for regula...
146Officers and servants and the expenses of the Supreme Court
(1) Appointments of officers and servants of the Supreme Court shall be made by the Chief Justice of India or such other Judge or officer of the Court as he m...
147Interpretation
In this Chapter and in Chapter V of Part VI references to any substantial question of law as to the interpretation of this Constitution shall be construed as ...
Chapter VComptroller And Auditor-General Of India
148Comptroller and Auditor-General of India
(1) There shall be a Comptroller and Auditor-General of India who shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal and shall only be rem...
149Duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor-General
The Comptroller and Auditor-General shall perform such duties and exercise such powers in relation to the accounts of the Union and of the States and of any o...
150Form of accounts of the Union and of the States
The accounts of the Union and of the States shall be kept in such form as the President may, on the advice of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India, pr...
151Audit reports
(1) The reports of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India relating to the accounts of the Union shall be submitted to the President, who shall cause the...
Part VIThe States
Chapter IGeneral
152Definition
In this Part, unless the context otherwise, requires, the expression "State" does not include the State of Jammu and Kashmir. ...
Chapter IIThe Executive
The Governor
153Governors of States
There shall be Governor for each State:  that nothing in this article shall prevent the appointment of the same person as Governor for two or more States. ...
154Executive power of State
(1) The executive power of the State shall be vested in the Governor and shall be exercised by him either directly or through officers subordinate to him in a...
155Appointment of Governor
The Governor of a State shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal. ...
156Term of office of Governor
(1) The Governor shall hold office during the pleasure of the President.  (2) The Governor may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign h...
157Qualifications for appointment as Governor
No person shall be eligible for appointment as Governor unless he is a citizen of India and has completed the age of thirty-five years.  ...
159Oath or affirmation by Governor
Every Governor and every person discharging the functions of the Governor shall, before entering upon his office, make and subscribe in the presence of the ch...
160Discharge of the functions of the Governor in certain contingencies
The President may make such provision as he thinks fit for the discharge of the functions of the Governor of a State in any contingency not provided for in th...
161Power of Governor to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases
and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases.- The Governor of a State shall have the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions...
162Extent of executive power of State
Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the executive power of a State shall extend to the matters with respect to which the Legislature of the State ...
Council of Ministers
163Council of Ministers to aid and advise Governor
(1) There shall be a council of Ministers with the chief Minister at the head to aid and advise the Governor in the exercise of his functions, except in so fa...
164Other provisions as to Ministers
(1) The chief Minister shall be appointed by the Governor and the other Ministers shall be appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Minister, and ...
The Advocate-General for the State
165Advocate-General for the State
(1) The Governor of each State shall appoint a person who is qualified to be appointed a Judge of a High Court to be Advocate-General for the State.  (2) It ...
Conduct of Government Business
166Conduct of business of the Government of a State
(1) All executive action of the Government of a State shall be expressed to be taken in the name of the Governor. (2) Orders and other instruments made and ex...
167Duties of Chief Minister as respects the furnishing of information to Governor, etc.
It shall be the duty of the Chief Minister of each State- (a) to communicate to the Governor of the State all decisions of the council of Ministers relating t...
Individual officers
Chapter IIIThe State Legislature
General
168Constitution of Legislatures in States
(1) For every State there shall be a Legislature which shall consist of the Governor, and (a) in the States of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka a...
169Abolition or creation of Legislative Councils in States
(1) Notwithstanding anything in Article 168, Parliament may by law provide for the abolition of the Legislative Council of a State having such a Council or fo...
170Composition of the Legislative Assemblies
(1) Subject to the provisions of Article 333, the Legislative Assembly of each State shall consist of not more than five hundred, and not less than sixty, mem...
171Composition of the Legislative Councils
(1) The total number of members in the Legislative Council of a State having such a Council shall not exceed one-third of the total number of members in the L...
172Duration of State Legislatures
(1) Every Legislative Assembly of every State, unless sooner dissolved, shall continue for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting and no lon...
173Qualification for membership of the State Legislature
A person shall not be qualified to be chosen to fill a seat in the Legislature of a State unless he -  (a) is a citizen of India, and makes and subscribes bef...
174Sessions of the State Legislature, prorogation and dissolution
(1) The Governor shall from time to time summon the House or each House of the Legislature of the State to meet at such time and place as he thinks fit, but s...
175Right of Governor to address and send messages to the House or Houses
(1) The Governor may address the Legislative Assembly or, in the case of a State having a Legislative Council, either House of the Legislature of the State, o...
176Special address by the Governor
(1) At the commencement of the first session after each general election to the Legislative Assembly and at the commencement of the first session of each year...
177Rights of Ministers and Advocate-General as respects the Houses
Every Minister and the Advocate-General for a State shall have the right to speak in, and otherwise to take part in the proceedings of, the legislative Assemb...
Officers of the State Legislature
178The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly
 Every Legislative Assembly of a State shall, as soon as may be, choose two members of the Assembly to be respectively Speaker and Deputy Speakers thereof and...
179Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker and Deputy Speaker
A member holding office as Speaker or Deputy Speaker of an Assembly- (a) shall vacate his office if he ceases to be a member of the Assembly; (b) may at any t...
180Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Speaker
(1) While the office of Speaker is vacant, the duties of the office shall be performed by the Deputy Speaker or, if the office of Deputy Speaker is also vacan...
181The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration
(1) At any sitting of the Legislative Assembly, while any resolution for the removal of the Speaker from his office is under consideration, the Speaker, or wh...
182The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council
The Legislative Council of every State having such Council shall, as soon as may be, choose two members of the Council to be respectively Chairman and Deputy ...
183Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Chairman and Deputy Chairman
A member holding office as Chairman or Deputy Chairman of a Legislative Council- (a) shall vacate his office if he ceases to be a member of the Council; (b) m...
184Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Chairman
(1) While the office of Chairman is vacant, the duties of the office shall be performed by the Deputy Chairman or, if the office of Deputy Chairman is also va...
185The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration
(1) At any sitting of the Legislative Council, while any resolution for the removal of the chairman from his office is under consideration, the Chairman, or w...
186Salaries and allowances of the Speaker and Deputy Speaker and the Chairman and Deputy Chairman
There shall be paid to the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, and to the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council,...
187Secretariat of State Legislature
(1) The House or each House of the Legislature of a State shall have a separate secretarial staff:  that nothing in this clause shall, in the case of the Legi...
Conduct of Business
188Oath or affirmation by members
Every member of the Legislative Assembly or the Legislative Council of a State shall, before taking his seat, make and subscribe before the Governor, or som...
189Voting in Houses, power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum
(1) Save as otherwise provided in this Constitution, all questions at any sitting of a House of the legislature of a State shall be determined by a majority o...
Disqualifications of Members
190Vacation of seats
(1) No person shall be a member of both Houses of the legislature of a State and provision shall be made by the Legislature of the State by law for the vacati...
191Disqualifications for membership
(1) A person shall be disqualified for being chosen as, and for being, a member of the Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council of a State-  (a) if he hold...
192Decision on questions as to disqualifications of members
(1) If any question arises as to whether a member of a House of the Legislature of a State has become subject to any of the disqualifications mentioned in cla...
193Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation under article 188 or when not qualified or when disqualified
If a person sits or votes as a member of the Legislative Assembly or the Legislative Council of a State before he has complied with the requirements of Articl...
Powers, Privileges and Immunities of State Legislatures and their Members
194Powers, privileges, etc., of the House of Legislatures and of the members and committees thereof
(1) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution and to the rules and standing orders regulating the procedure of the Legislature, there shall be freedom of...
195Salaries and allowances of members
Members of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council of a State shall be entitled to receive such salaries and allowances as may from time to time ...
Legislative Procedure
196Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills
(1) Subject to the provisions of Article 198 and 207 with respect o Money Bills and other financial Bills, a Bill may originate in either House of the Legisla...
197Restriction on powers of Legislative Council as to Bills other than Money Bills
(1) If after a Bill has been passed by the Legislative Assembly of a State having a Legislative Council and transmitted to the Legislative Council- (a) the Bi...
198Special procedure in respect of Money Bills
(1) A Money Bill shall not be introduced in a Legislative Council.(2) After a Money Bill has been passed by the Legislative Assembly of a State having a Legi...
199Definition of Money Bills
(1) For the purposes of this Chapter, a Bill shall be deemed to be a Money Bill if it contains only provisions dealing with all or any of the following matter...
200Assent to Bills
When a Bill has been passed by the Legislative Assembly of a State or, in the case of a State having a Legislative Council, has been passed by both Houses of ...
Governors assent to Bills
201Bills reserved for consideration
When a Bill is reserved by a Governor for the consideration of the President, the President shall declare either that he assents to the Bill or that he withho...
Procedure in Financial Matters
202Annual financial statement
(1) The Governor shall in respect of every financial year cause to be laid before the House or Houses of the Legislature of the State a statement of the esti...
203Procedure in Legislature with respect to estimates
(1) So much of the estimates as relates to expenditure charged upon the Consolidated Fund of a State shall not be submitted to the vote of the Legislative Ass...
204Appropriation Bills
(1) As soon as may be after the grants under article 203 have been made by the Assembly, there shall be introduced a Bill to provide for the appropriation out...
205Supplementary, additional or excess grants
(1) The Governor shall- (a) if the amount authorized by any law made in accordance with the provisions of article 204 to be expended for a particular service ...
206Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants
(1) Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Chapter, the Legislative Assembly of a State shall have power- (a) to make any grant in adva...
207Special provisions as to financial Bills
(1) A Bill or amendment making provision for any of the matters specified in sub-clause (a) to (f) of clause (1) of article 199 shall not be introduced or mov...
Procedure Generally
208Rules of procedure
(1) A House of the Legislature of a State may make rules for regulating subject to the provisions of this Constitution, its procedure and the conduct of its b...
209Regulation by law of procedure in the Legislature of the State in relation to financial business
The Legislature of a State may, for the purpose of the timely completion of financial business, regulate by law the procedure of, and the conduct of business ...
210Language to be used in the Legislature
(1) Notwithstanding anything in Part XVII, but subject to the provisions of article 348, business in the Legislature of a State shall be transacted in the off...
211Restriction on discussion in the Legislature
No discussion shall take place in the Legislature of a State with respect to the conduct of any Judge of the Supreme Court or of a High Court in the discharge...
212Courts not to inquire into proceedings of the Legislature
(1) The validity of any proceedings in the Legislature of a State shall not be called in question on the ground of any alleged irregularity of procedure. (2) ...
Chapter IVLegislative Power Of The Governor
213Power of Governor to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature
(1) If at any time, except when the Legislative Assembly of a State is in session, or where there is a Legislative Council in a State, except when both Houses...
Chapter VThe High Courts In The States
214High Courts for States
There shall be a High Court for each State. ...
215High Courts to be courts of record
Every High Court shall be a court of record and shall have all the powers of such a court including the power to punish for contempt of itself. ...
216Constitution of High Courts
Every High Court shall consist of a Chief Justice and such other Judges as the President may from time to time deem it necessary to appoint. ...
217Appointment and conditions of the office of a Judge of a High Court
(1) Every Judge of a High Court shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal after consultation with the Chief Justice of India, the...
218Application of certain provisions relating to Supreme Court to High Courts
The provisions of clauses (4) and (5) of Article 124 shall apply in relation to a High Court as they apply in relation to the Supreme Court with the substitut...
219Oath or affirmation by Judges of High Courts
Every person appointed to be a Judge of a High Court shall, before he enters upon his office, make and subscribe before the Governor of the State, or some per...
220Restriction on practice after being a permanent Judge
No person who, after the commencement of this Constitution , has held office as a permanent Judge of a High Court shall plead or act in any court or before an...
221Salaries etc., of Judges
(1) There shall be paid to the Judges of each High Court such salaries as may be determined by Parliament by law and, until provision in that behalf is so mad...
222Transfer of a Judge from one High Court to another
(1) The President may, after consultation with the Chief Justice of India, transfer a Judge from one High Court to any other High Court. (2) When a Judge has ...
223Appointment of acting Chief Justice
When the office of Chief Justice of High Court is vacant or when any such Chief Justice is, by reason of absence or otherwise, unable to perform the duties of...
224Appointment of additional and acting Judges
(1) If by reason of any temporary increase in the business of High Court or by reason of arrears of work therein, it appears to the President that the number ...
224AAppointment of retired Judges at sittings of High Courts
Notwithstanding anything in this Chapter, the Chief Justice of a High Court for any State may at any time, with the previous consent of the President, request...
225Jurisdiction of existing High Courts
Subject to the provisions of this Constitution and to the provisions of any law of the appropriate Legislature made by virtue of powers conferred on that Legi...
226Power of High Courts to issue certain writs
(1) Notwithstanding anything in Article 32 every High Court shall have powers, throughout the territories in relation to which it exercise jurisdiction, to is...
Students
226A[Repealed]
227Power of superintendence over all courts by the High Court
 (1) Every High Court shall have superintendence over all courts and tribunals throughout the territories interrelation to which it exercises jurisdiction. (2...
228Transfer of certain cases to High Court
.—If the High Court is satisfied that a case pending in a court subordinate to it involves a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of this Cons...
228A[Repealed]
229Officers and servants and the expenses of High Courts
—(1) Appointments of officers and servants of a High Court shall be made by the Chief Justice of the Court or such other Judge or officer of the Court as he m...
230Extension of jurisdiction of High Courts to Union territories
—(1) Parliament may by law extend the jurisdiction of a High Court to, or exclude the jurisdiction of a High Court from, any Union territory.(2) Where the Hig...
231Establishment of a common High Court for two or more States
—(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in the preceding provisions of this Chapter, Parliament may by law establish a common High Court for two or more State...
Chapter VISubordinate Courts
233Appointment of district judges
(1) Appointments of persons to be, and the posting and promotion of, district judges in any State shall be made by the Governor of the State in consultation w...
233AValidation of appointments of, and judgments, etc., delivered by, certain district judges
Notwithstanding any judgment, decree or order of any court,- (a) i) no appointment of any person already in the judicial service of a State or of any person w...
234Recruitment of persons other than district judges to the judicial service
Appointment of persons other than district judges to the judicial service of a State shall be made by the Governor of the State in accordance with rules made ...
235Control over subordinate courts
The control over district courts and courts subordinate thereto including the posting and promotion of, and the grant of leave to, persons belonging to the ju...
236Interpretation
In this Chapter- (a) the expression "district judge" includes judge of a city civil court, additional district judge, joint district judge, assistant district...
237Application of the provisions of this Chapter to certain class or classes of magistrates
The Governor may by public notification direct that the foregoing provisions of this Chapter and any rules made thereunder shall with effect from such date as...
Part VII[Repealed]
Part VIIIThe Union Territories
239Administration of Union territories
(1) Save as otherwise provided by Parliament by law, every Union territory shall be administered by the President acting, to such extent as he thinks fit, thr...
239ACreation of local Legislatures or Council of Ministers or both for certain Union territories
(1) Parliament may by law create for the Union territory of Pondicherry - (a) a body, whether elected or partly nominated and partly elected, to function as a...
239BPower of administrator to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature
(1)If at any time, except when the Legislature of the Union territory of Pondicherry is in session, the administrator thereof is satisfied that circumstances ...
240Power of President to make regulations for certain Union territories
 (1) The President may make regulations for the peace, progress and good government of the Union territory of- (a) the Andaman and Nicobar Islands; (b) Laksha...
241High Courts for Union territories
(1) Parliament may by law constitute a High Court for a Union territory or declare any court in any such territory to be a High Court for all or any of the pu...
242[Repealed]
Part IXThe Panchayats
243Definitions
.—In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires,—(a) ‘district’ means a district in a State; (b) ‘Gram Sabha’ means a body consisting of persons registere...
243AGram Sabha
—A Gram Sabha may exercise such powers and perform such functions at the village level as the Legislature of a State may by law, provide....
243BConstitution of Panchayats
—(1) There shall be constituted in every State, Panchayats at the village, intermediate and district levels in accordance with the provisions of this Part. (2...
243CComposition of Panchayats
—(1) Subject to the provisions of this Part, the Legislature of a State may, by law, make provisions with respect to the composition of Panchayats: that the r...
243DReservation of seats
 —(1) Seats shall be reserved for—(a) the Scheduled Castes; and (b) the Scheduled Tribes, in every Panchayat and the number of seats so reserved shall bear, as...
243EDuration of Panchayats, etc.
—(1) Every Panchayat, unless sooner dissolved under any law for the time being in force, shall continue for five years from the date appointed for its first m...
243FDisqualifications for membership
—(1) A person shall be disqualified for being chosen as, and for being, a member of a Panchayat—(a) if he is so disqualified by or under any law for the time ...
243GPowers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats
—Subject to the provisions of this Constitution the Legislature of a State may, by law, endow the Panchayats with such powers and authority and may be necessa...
243HPowers to impose taxes by, and funds of, the Panchayats
—The Legislature of a State may, by law,—(a) authorize a Panchayat to levy, collect and appropriate such taxes, duties, tolls and fees in accordance with such ...
243IConstitution of finance Commissions to review financial position
—(1) The Governor of a State shall, as soon as may be within one year from the commencement of the Constitution (Seventy-third Amendment) Act, 1992, and there...
243JAudit of accounts of Panchayats
—The Legislature of a State may, by law, make provisions with respect to the maintenance of accounts by the Panchayats and the auditing of such accounts....
243KElections to the Panchayats
—The superintendence, direction and control of the preparation of electoral rolls for, and the conduct of, all elections to the Panchayats shall be vested in ...
243LApplication to Union territories
—The provisions of this Part shall apply to the Union territories and shall, in their application to a Union territory, have effect as if the references to th...
243MPart not to apply to certain areas
(1) Nothing in this Part shall apply to the Scheduled Areas referred to in clause (1), and the tribal areas referred to in clause (2), of article 244.(2) Noth...
243NContinuance of existing laws and Panchayats
—Notwithstanding anything in this Part, any provision of any law relating to Panchayats in force in a State immediately before commencement of the Constitutio...
243OBar to interference by courts in electoral matters
—Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution—(a) the validity of any law relating to the delimitation of constituencies or the allotment of seats to such con...
Election process (Gram Panchayats)
Part IX AThe Municipalities
243PDefinitions
—In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires,—(a) ‘Committee’ means a Committee constituted under article 243S;(b) ‘district’ means a district in a Sta...
243QConstitution of Municipalities
—(1) There shall be constituted in every State,—(a) a Nagar Panchayat (by whatever name called) for a transitional area, that is to say, an area in transition ...
243RComposition of Municipalities
—(1) Save as provided in clause (2), all the seats in a Municipality shall be filled by persons chosen by direct election from the territorial constituencies ...
243SConstitution and composition of wards Committees, etc.
—(1) There shall be constituted Wards Committees, consisting of one or more Wards, within the territorial area of a Municipality having a population of three ...
243TReservation of seats
—(1) Seats shall be reserved for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes in every Municipality and the number of seats so reserved shall bear, as nearly...
243UDuration of Municipalities, etc.
—(1) Every Municipality, unless sooner dissolved under any law for the time being in force, shall continue for five years from the date appointed for its firs...
243VDisqualifications for membership
—(1) A person shall be disqualified for being chosen as, and for being a member of a Municipality—(a) if he is so disqualified by or under any law for the tim...
243WPowers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities, etc.
—Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the Legislature of a State may, by law, endow—(a) the Municipalities with such powers and authority as may be ...
243XPower to impose taxes by, and funds, of, the Municipalities
The Legislature of a State may, by law—(a) authorize a Municipality to levy, collect and appropriate such taxes, duties, tolls and fees in accordance with such...
243YFinance Commission
—(1) The Finance Commission constituted under article 243-I shall also review the financial position of the Municipalities and make recommendations to the Gov...
243ZAudit of accounts of Municipalities
—The Legislature of a State may, by law, make provisions with respect to the maintenance of accounts by the Municipalities and the auditing of such accounts....
243ZAElections to the Municipalities
—(1) The superintendence, direction and control of the preparation of electoral rolls for, and the conduct of, all elections to the Municipalities shall be ve...
243ZBApplication to Union territories
—The Provisions of this Part shall apply to the Union territories and shall, in their application to a Union territory, have effect as if the references to th...
243ZCPart not to apply to certain areas
—(1) Nothing in this Part shall apply to the Scheduled Areas referred to in Clause (1), and the tribal areas referred to in Clause (2), of article 244.(2) Not...
243ZDCommittee for district planning
—(1) There shall be constituted in every State at the district level a District Planning Committee to consolidate the plans prepared by the Panchayats and the...
243ZECommittee for Metropolitan Planning
—(1) There shall be constituted in every Metropolitan, area a Metropolitan Planning Committee to prepare a draft development plan for the Metropolitan area as...
243ZFContinuance of existing laws and Municipalities
—Notwithstanding anything in this Part, any provision of any law relating to Municipalities in force in a State immediately before the commencement of the Con...
243ZGBar to interference by courts in electoral matters
—Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution,—(a) the validity of any law relating to the delimitation of constituencies or the allotment of seats to such co...
Part XThe Scheduled And Tribal Areas
244Administration of Scheduled Areas and Tribal Areas
(1) The provisions of the Fifth Schedule shall apply to the administration and control of the Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes in any State other than the...
244AFormation of an autonomous State comprising certain tribal areas in Assam and creation of local Legislature or Council of Ministers or both therefor
(1) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, Parliament may, by law, form within the State of Assam an autonomous State comprising (whether wholly or i...
Part XIRelations Between The Union And The States
Chapter ILegislative Relations
Distribution of Legislative Powers
245Extent of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States
(1) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, Parliament may make laws for the whole or any part of the territory of India, and the Legislature of a Sta...
246Subject-matter of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States
(1) Notwithstanding anything in clauses(2) and (3), Parliament has exclusive power to make laws with respect to any of the matters enumerated in List I in the...
247Power of Parliament to provide for the establishment of certain additional courts
Notwithstanding anything in this Chapter, Parliament may by law provide for the establishment of any additional courts for the better administration of laws m...
248Residuary powers of legislation
(1)Parliament has exclusive power to make any law with respect to any matter not enumerated in the Concurrent List or State List. (2) Such power shall include...
249Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to a matter in the State List in the national interest
(1) Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Chapter, if the Council of States has declared by resolution supported by not less than two-t...
250Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to any matter in the State List if a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation
(1) Notwithstanding anything in this Chapter, Parliament shall, while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation, have, power to make laws for the whole or a...
251Inconsistency between laws made by Parliament under articles 249 and 250 and laws made by the Legislatures of States
Nothing in Articles 249 and 250 shall restrict the power of the Legislature of a State to make any law which under this Constitution it has power to make, but...
252Power of Parliament to legislate for two or more States by consent and adoption of such legislation by any other State
(1) (1) If it appears to the Legislatures of two or more States to be desirable that any of the matters with respect to which Parliament has no power to make ...
253Legislation for giving effect to international agreements
Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Chapter, Parliament has power to make any law for the whole or any part of the territory of India...
254Inconsistency between laws made by Parliament and laws made by the Legislatures of States
(1) If any provision of a law made by the Legislature of a State is repugnant to any provision of a law made by Parliament which Parliament is competent to en...
255Requirements as to recommendations and previous sanctions to be regarded as matters of procedure only
No Act of Parliament or of the legislature of a State and no provision in any such Act, shall be invalid by reason only that some recommendation or previous s...
Chapter IIAdministrative Relations
General
256Obligation of States and the Union
The executive power of every State shall be so exercised as to ensure compliance with the laws made by Parliament and any existing laws which apply in that St...
257Control of the Union over States in certain cases
(1) The executive power of every State shall be so exercised as not to impede or prejudice the exercise of the executive power of the Union, and the executive...
257A[Repealed]
258Power of the Union to confer powers, etc., on States in certain cases
(1) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, the President may, with the consent of the Governor of a State, entrust either conditionally or uncondition...
258APower of the States to entrust functions to the Union
Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, the Governor of a State may, with the consent of the Governor of India, entrust either conditionally or uncondi...
259[Repealed]
260Jurisdiction of the Union in relation to territories outside India
The Government of India may by agreement with the Government of any territory not being part of the territory of India undertake any executive, legislative or...
261Public acts, records and judicial proceedings
Full faith and credit shall be given throughout the territory of India to public acts, records and judicial proceedings of the Union and of every State. (2) T...
Disputes relating to Waters
262Adjudication of disputes relating to waters of inter-State rivers or river valleys
(1) Parliament may by law provide for the adjudication of any dispute or complaint with respect to the use, distribution or control of the waters of, or in, a...
Co-ordination between States
263Provisions with respect to an inter-State Council
If any time it appears to the President that the public interests would be served by the establishment of a Council charged with the duty of- (a) inquiring in...
Part XIIFinance, Property, Contracts And Suits
Chapter IFinance
General
264Interpretation
In this Part, "Finance Commission" means a Finance Commission constituted under Article 280. ...
265Taxes not to be imposed save by authority of law
No tax shall be levied or collected except by authority of law. ...
Fee
266Consolidated Funds and public accounts of India and of the States
(1) Subject to the provisions of Article 267 and to the provisions of this Chapter with respect to the assignment of the whole or part of the net proceeds of ...
267Contingency Fund
(1) Parliament may by law establish a Contingency Fund in the nature of an imprest to be entitled "the Contingency Fund of India" into which shall be paid fro...
Distribution of Revenues between the Union and the States
268Duties levied by the Union but collected and appropriated by the States
(1)Such stamp duties and such duties of excise on medicinal and toilet preparations as are mentioned in the Union List shall be levied by the Government of In...
269Taxes levied and collected by the Union but assigned to the States
(1) The following duties and taxes shall be levied and collected by the Government of India but shall be assigned to the States in the manner provided in clau...
270Taxes levied and distributed between the Union and the States
—(1) Taxes on income other than agricultural income shall be levied and collected by the Government of India and distributed between the Union and the States ...
271Surcharge on certain duties and taxes for purposes of the Union
Notwithstanding anything in Articles 269 and 270, Parliament may at any time increase any of the duties or taxes referred in those articles by a surcharge for...
272Taxes which are levied and collected by the Union and may be distributed between the Union and the States
Union duties of excise other than such duties of excise on medicinal and toilet preparations as are mentioned in the Union List shall be levied and collected ...
273Grants in lieu of export duty on jute and jute products
(1) There shall be charged on the Consolidated Fund of India in each year as grants-in-aid of the revenues of the State of Assam, Bihar, Orissa and West Benga...
274Prior recommendation of President required to Bills affecting taxation in which States are interested
(1) No Bill or amendment which imposes or varies any tax which varies any tax or duty in which States are interested, or which varies the meaning of the expre...
275Grants from the Union to certain States
(1) Such sums as Parliament may by law provide shall be charged on the Consolidated Fund of India in each year as grants-in-aid of the revenues of such States...
276Taxes on professions, trades, callings and employments
(1) Notwithstanding anything in Article 246, no law of the Legislature of a State relating to taxes for the benefit of the State or of a municipality, distric...
277Savings
Any taxes, duties, cesses or fees which, immediately before the commencement of this Constitution, were being lawfully levied by the Government of any State o...
278[Repealed]
279Calculation of "net proceeds", etc.
(1) In the foregoing provisions of this Chapter, "net proceeds" means in relation to any tax or duty the proceeds thereof reduced by the cost of collection, a...
280Finance Commission
(1) The President shall, within two years from the commencement of this Constitution and thereafter at the expiration of every fifth year or at such earlier t...
281Recommendations of the Finance Commission
The President shall cause every recommendation made by the Finance Commission under the provisions of this Constitution together with an explanatory memorandu...
Miscellaneous Financial Provisions
282Expenditure defrayable by the Union or a State out of its revenues
The Union or a State may make any grants for any public purpose, notwithstanding that the purpose is not one with respect to which Parliament or the Legislatu...
283Custody, etc. of Consolidated Funds, Contingency Funds and moneys credited to the public accounts
(1) The custody of the Consolidated Fund of India and the Contingency Fund of India, the payment of moneys into such Funds, the withdrawal of moneys there fro...
285Exemption of property of the Union from State taxation
(1) The property of the Union shall, save in so far as Parliament may by law otherwise provide, be exempt from all taxes imposed by a State or by any authorit...
286Restrictions as to imposition of tax on the sale or purchase of goods
(1) No law of a State shall impose, or authorize the imposition of, a tax on the sale or purchase of goods where such sale or purchase takes place- (a) outsid...
287Exemption from taxes on electricity
Save in so far as Parliament may by law otherwise provide, no law of a State shall impose, or authorize the imposition of, a tax on the consumption or sale of...
288Exemption from taxation by States in respect of water or electricity in certain cases
(1) Save in so far as the President may by order otherwise provide, no law of a State in force immediately before the commencement of this Constitution shall ...
289Exemption of property and income of a State from Union taxation
(1) The property and income of a State shall be exempt from Union taxation. (2) Nothing in clause (1) shall prevent the Union from imposing, or authorizing th...
290Adjustment in respect of certain expenses and pensions
Where under the provisions of this Constitution the expenses of any court or Commission, or the pension payable to or in respect of a person who has served be...
290AAnnual payment to certain Devaswom Funds
A sum of forty-six lakhs and fifty thousand rupees shall be charged on, and paid out of, the Consolidated Fund of the State of Kerala every year to the Travan...
291[Repealed]
Chapter IIBorrowing
292Borrowing by the Government of India
The executive power of the Union extends to borrowing upon the security of the Consolidated Fund of India within such limits, if any, as may from time to time...
293Borrowing by States
(1) Subject to the provisions of this article, the executive power of a State extends to borrowing within the territory of India upon the security of the Cons...
Chapter IIIProperty, Contracts, Rights, Liabilities, Obligations And Suits
294Succession to property, assets, rights, liabilities and obligations in certain cases
from the commencement of this Constitution- (a) all property and assets which immediately before such commencement were vested in His Majesty for the purposes ...
295Succession to property, assets, rights, liabilities and obligations in other cases
(1) As from the commencement of this Constitution- (a) all property and assets which immediately before such commencement were vested in any Indian State cor...
296Property accruing by escheat or lapse or as bona vacantia
Subject as hereinafter provided any property in the territory of India which, if this Constitution had not come into operation, would have accrued to His Maje...
297Things of value within territorial waters or continental shelf and resources of the exclusive economic zone to vest in the Union
(1) All lands, minerals and other things of value underlying the ocean within the territorial waters, or the continental shelf, or the exclusive economic zone...
298Power to carry on trade, etc.
The executive power of the Union and of each State shall extend to the carrying on of any trade or business and to the acquisition, holding and disposal of pr...
299Contracts
(1) All contracts made in the exercise of the executive power of the Union or of a State shall be expressed to be made by the President, or by the Governor of...
300Suits and proceedings
(1) The Governor of India may sue or be sued by the name of the Union and the Government of a State may sue or be sued by the name of the State and may, subje...
Chapter IVRight To Property
300APersons not to be deprived of property save by authority of law
No person shall be deprived of his property save by authority of law. ...
Part XIIITrade, Commerce And Intercourse Within The Territory Of India
301Freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse
Subject to the other provisions of this Part, trade, commerce and intercourse throughout the territory of India shall be free. ...
302Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade, commerce and intercourse
Parliament may by law impose such restrictions on the freedom of trade, commerce or intercourse between one State and another or within any part of the territ...
303Restrictions on the legislative powers of the Union and of the States with regard to trade and commerce
(1) Notwithstanding anything in Article 302, neither Parliament nor the Legislature of a State shall have power to make any law giving, or authorizing the giv...
304Restrictions on trade, commerce and intercourse among States Regulation and Prohibition must be distinguished from each other
Notwithstanding anything in Article 301 or Article 303, the Legislature of a State may by law - (a) impose on goods imported from other States or the Union te...
305Saving of existing laws and laws providing for State monopolies
Nothing in Articles 301 and 303 shall affect the provisions of any existing law except in so far as the President may be order otherwise direct; and nothing i...
306[Repealed]
307Appointment of authority for carrying out the purposes of articles 301 to 304
Parliament may by law appoint such authority as it considers appropriate for carrying out the purposes of Articles 301, 302, 303 and 304, and confer on the au...
Part XIVServices Under The Union And The States
Chapter IServices
308Interpretation
In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires, the expression "State" does not include the State of Jammu and Kashmir. ...
309Recruitment and conditions of service of persons serving the Union or a State
Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, Acts of the appropriate Legislature may regulate the recruitment, and conditions of service of persons appoint...
310Tenure of office of persons serving the Union or a State
(1) Except as expressly provided by this Constitution, every person who is a member of a defense service or of a civil service of the Union or of an all-India...
311Dismissal, removal or reduction in rank of persons employed in civil capacities under the Union or a State
(1) No person who is a member of a civil service of the Union or an all-India service or a civil service of a State or holds a civil post under the Union or a...
312All-India Services
(1) Notwithstanding anything in Chapter VI of Part VI or Part XI, if the Council of States has declared by resolution supported by not less than two-thirds of...
312APower of Parliament to vary or revoke conditions of service of officers of certain services
(1) Parliament may by law- (a) vary or revoke, whether prospectively or retrospectively, the conditions of service as respects remuneration, leave and pension...
313Transitional provisions
Until other provision is made in this behalf under this Constitution, all the laws in force immediately before the commencement of this Constitution and appli...
314[Repealed]
Chapter IIPublic Service Commission
315Public Service Commissions for the Union and for the States
(1) Subject to the provisions of this article, there shall be a Public Service Commission for the Union and a Public Service Commission for each State. (2) Tw...
316Appointment and term of office of members
(1) The Chairman and other members of a Public Service Commission shall be appointed, in the case of the Union Commission or a Joint Commission, by the Presid...
317Removal and suspension of a member of a Public Service Commission
(1) Subject to the provisions of clause (3), the Chairman or any other member of a Public Service Commission shall only be removed from his office by order of...
318Power to make regulations as to conditions of service of members and staff of the Commission
In the case of the Union Commission or a Joint Commission, the President and, in the case of a State Commission, the Governor of the State may by regulations-...
319Prohibition as to the holding of offices by members of Commission on ceasing to be such members
On ceasing to hold office- (a) the Chairman of the Union Public Service Commission shall be ineligible for further employment either under the Government of I...
320Functions of Public Service Commissions
3(1) It shall be the duty of the Union and the State Public Service Commission to conduct examinations for appointments to the services of the Union and the s...
321Power to extend functions of Public Service Commissions
An Act made by Parliament or, as the case may be, the Legislature of a State may provide for the exercise of additional functions by the Union Public Service ...
322Expenses of Public Service Commission
The expenses of the Union or a State Public Service Commission, including any salaries, allowances and pensions payable to or in respect of the members or sta...
323Reports of Public Service Commissions
(1) It shall be the duty of the Union Commission to present annually to the President a report as to the work done by the Commission and on receipt of such re...
Part XIVATribunals
323AAdministrative tribunals
Parliament may, by law, provide for the adjudication or trial by administrative tribunals of disputes and complaints with respect to recruitment and condition...
323BTribunals for other matters
(1) The appropriate Legislature may, by law, provide for the adjudication or trial by tribunals of any disputes, complaints, or offences with respect to all o...
Part XVElections
324Superintendence, direction and control of elections to be vested in an Election Commission
.- (1) The superintendence, direction and control of the preparation of the electoral rolls for, and the conduct of, all elections to Parliament and to the Le...
325No person to be ineligible for inclusion in, or to claim to be included in a special, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste or sex
There shall be one general electoral roll for every territorial constituency for election to either House of Parliament or to the House or either House of the...
326Elections to the House of the People and to the Legislative Assemblies of States to be on the basis of adult suffrage
The elections to the House of the People and to the Legislative Assembly of every State shall be on the basis of adult suffrage; but is to say, every person w...
327Power of Parliament to make provision with respect to elections to Legislatures
Subject to the provisions of this constitution, Parliament may from time to time by law made provision with respect to all matters relating to, or in connecti...
328Power of Legislature of a State to make provision with respect to elections to such Legislature
Subject to the provisions of this Constitution and in so far as provision in that behalf is not made by Parliament, the Legislature of a State may from time t...
329Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters
Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution- (a) the validity of any law relating to the delimitation of constituencies or the allotment of seats to such c...
329A[Repealed]
Part XVISpecial Provisions Relating To Certain Classes
330Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the House of the People
(1) Seats shall be reserved in the House of the People for- (a) the Scheduled Castes; (b) the Scheduled Tribes except the Scheduled Tribes in the autonomous ...
331Representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the House of the People
Notwithstanding anything in Article 81, the President may, if he is of opinion that the Anglo-Indian community is not adequately represented in the House of t...
332Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the Legislative Assemblies of the States
(1) Seats shall be reserved for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, [except the Scheduled Tribes in the tribal areas of Assam, in Nagaland and in M...
333Representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the Legislative Assemblies of the States
Notwithstanding anything in Article 170, the Governor of a State may, if he is of opinion that the Anglo-Indian community needs representation in the Legislat...
334Reservation of seats and special representation to cease after fifty years
Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Part, the provisions of Constitution relating to - (a) the reservation of seats for the Scheduled ...
335Claims of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to services and posts
The claims of the members of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes shall be taken into consideration, consistently with the maintenance of efficiency ...
336Special provision for Anglo-Indian community in certain services
(1) During the first two years after the commencement of this Constitution, appointments of members of the Anglo-Indian community to posts in the railway, cus...
337Special provision with respect to educational grants for the benefit of Anglo-Indian community
During the first three financial years after the commencement of this Constitution, the same grants, if any, shall be made by the Union and by each State for ...
338Special Officer for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, etc.
(1) There shall be a Special Officer for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to be appointed by the President. (2) It shall be the duty of the Special O...
339Control of the Union over the administration of Scheduled Areas and the welfare of Scheduled Tribes
(1) The President may at any time and shall, at the expiration of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution by order appoint a Commission to report...
340Appointment of a Commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes
(1) The President may by order appoint a Commission consisting of such persons as he thinks fit to investigate the conditions of socially and educationally ba...
341Scheduled Castes
(1) The President may with respect to any State [or Union territory], and where it is a State after consultation with the Governor thereof, by public notifica...
342Scheduled Tribes
(1) The President may with respect to any State [or Union territory], and where it is a State, after consultation with the Governor thereof, by public notific...
Part XVIIOfficial Language
Chapter ILanguage Of The Union
343Official language of the Union
(1) The official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari script. The form of numerals to be used for the official purposes of the Union shall be th...
344Commission and Committee of Parliament on official language
(1) The President shall, at the expiration of five years from the commencement of this Constitution and thereafter at the expiration of ten years from such co...
Chapter IIRegional Languages
345Official language or languages of a State
Subject to the provisions of Article 346 and 347, the Legislature of a State may by law adopt any one or more of the languages in use in the State or Hindi as...
346Official language for communication between one State and another or between a State and the Union
The language for the time being authorized for use in the Union for official purposes shall be the official language for communication between one State and a...
347Special provision relating to language spoken by a section of the population of a State
On a demand being made in that behalf the President may, if he is satisfied that a substantial proportion of the population of a State desire the use of any l...
Chapter IIILanguage Of The Supreme Court, High Courts, Etc
348Language to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts and for Acts, Bills, etc.
(1) Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Part, until Parliament by law otherwise provides- (a) all proceedings in the Supreme Court an...
349Special procedure for enactment of certain laws relating to language
During the period of fifteen years from the commencement of this Constitution, no Bill or amendment making provision for the language to be used for any of th...
Chapter IVSpecial Directives
350Language to be used in representations for redress of grievances
Every person shall be entitled to submit a representation for the redress of any grievance to any officer or authority of the Union or a State in any of the l...
350AFacilities for instruction in mother-tongue at primary stage
It shall be the endeavor of every State and of every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother-tongue at t...
350BSpecial Officer for linguistic minorities
(1) There shall be a Special Officer for linguistic minorities to be appointed by the President. (2) It shall be the duty of the Special Officer to investigat...
351Directive for development of the Hindi language
It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language, to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elemen...
Part XVIIIEmergency Provisions
352Proclamation of Emergency
(1) If the President is satisfied that a grave emergency exists whereby the security of India or of any part of the territory thereof is threatened, whether b...
353Effect of Proclamation of Emergency
While a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation, then- (a) notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, the executive power of the Union shall extend to t...
354Application of provisions relating to distribution of revenues while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation
(l) The President may, while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation, by order direct that all +or any of the provisions of Articles 268 to 279 shall for ...
355Duty of the Union to protect States against external aggression and internal disturbance
It shall be the duty of the Union to protect every State against external aggression and internal disturbance and to ensure that the government of every State...
356Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in State
(I) If the President, on receipt of report from the Governor of the State or otherwise, is satisfied that a situation has arisen in which the government of th...
357Exercise of legislative powers under Proclamation issued under article 356
(1) Whereby a Proclamation issued under clause (1) of Article 356, it has been declared that the powers of the Legislature of the State shall be exercisable b...
358Suspension of provisions of article 19 during emergencies
(1) While a Proclamation of Emergency declaring that the security of India or any part of the territory thereof is threatened by war or by external aggression...
359Suspension of the enforcement of the rights conferred by Part III during emergencies
(1) Where a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation, the President may by order declare that the right to move any court for the enforcement of such of the ...
359A[Repealed]
360Provisions as to financial emergency
(1) If the President is satisfied that a situation has arisen whereby the financial stability or credit of India or of any part of the territory thereof is th...
Part XIXMiscellaneous
361Protection of President and Governors and Rajpramukhs
(1) The President, or the Governor or Rajpramukh of a State, shall not be answerable to any court for the exercise and performance of the powers and duties of...
361AProtection of publication of proceedings of Parliament and State Legislature
 (1) No person shall be liable to any proceedings, civil or criminal, in any court in respect of the publication in a newspaper of a substantially true report...
362[Repealed]
363Bar to interference by courts in disputes arising out of certain treaties, agreements, etc.
(1) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution but subject to the provisions of Article 143, neither the Supreme Court nor any other court shall have juris...
363ARecognition granted to Rulers of Indian States to cease and privy purses to be abolished
Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution or in any law for the time being in force  (a) the Prince, Chief or other person who, at any time before the com...
364Special provisions as to major ports and aerodromes
(1) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, the President may by public notification direct that as from such date as may be specified in the notificat...
365Effect of failure to comply with, or to give effect to, directions given by the
Where any State has failed to comply with or to give effect to any directions given in the exercise of the executive power of the Union under any directions g...
366Definitions
In this Constitution, unless the context otherwise requires, the following expressions have l,the meanings hereby respectively assigned to them, that is to sa...
367Interpretation
(1) Unless the context otherwise requires, the General Clauses Act, 1897, shall, subject to any adaptations and modifications that may be made therein under A...
Part XXAmendment Of The Constitution
368Power of Parliament to amend the Constitution and procedure therefor
(1) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, Parliament may in exercise of its constituent power amend by way of addition, variation or repeal any provi...
Part XXITemporary, Transitional And Special Provisions
369Temporary power to Parliament to make laws with respect to certain matters in the State List as if they were matters in the Concurrent List
Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, Parliament shall, during a period of five years from the commencement of this constitution, have power to make ...
370Temporary provisions with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir
(1) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution,- (a) the provisions of Article 238 shall not apply in relation to the State of Jammu and Kashmir; (b) the p...
371Special provision with respect to the States of Maharashtra and Gujarat
(2) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, the President may by order made with respect to the State of Maharashtra or Gujarat, provide for any specia...
371ASpecial provision with respect to the State of Nagaland
(1) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution,- (a) no Act of Parliament in respect of - (i) religious or social practices of the Nagas, (ii) Naga custom...
371BSpecial provision with respect to the State of Assam
Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, the President may, by order made with respect to the State of Assam, provide for the constitution and functions...
371CSpecial provision with respect to the State of Manipur
(1) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, the President may, by order made with respect to the State of Manipur, provide for the constitution and fun...
371DSpecial provisions with respect to the State of Andhra Pradesh
(1) The president may by order made with respect to the state of Andhra Pradesh provide, having regard to the requirements of the state as a whole, for equita...
371EEstablishment of Central University in Andhra Pradesh
Parliament may by law provide for the establishment of a University in the State of Andhra Pradesh. ...
371FSpecial provisions with respect to the State of Sikkim
Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution,- (a) the Legislative Assembly of the State of Sikkim shall consist of not less than thirty members; (b) as from...
371GSpecial provision with respect to the State of Mizoram
Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution,- (a) no Act of President in respect of - (i) religious or social practices of the Mizos, (ii) Mizo customary l...
371HSpecial provision with respect to the State of Arunachal Pradesh
Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution,- (a) the Governor of Arunachal Pradesh shall have special responsibility with respect to law and order in the S...
371-ISpecial provision with respect to the State of Goa
Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, the Legislative Assembly of the State of Goa shall consist of not less than thirty members. ...
372Continuance in force of existing laws and their adaptation
 (1) Notwithstanding the repeal by this Constitution of the enactments referred to in Article 395 but subject to the other provisions of this Constitution, al...
372APower of the President to adapt laws
(1) For the purposes of bringing the provisions of any law in force in India or in any part thereof, immediately before the commencement of the Constitution (...
373Power of President to make order in respect of persons under preventive detention in certain cases
Until provision is made by Parliament under clause (7) of Article 22, or until the expiration of one year from the commencement of this Constitution, whicheve...
374Provisions as to Judges of the Federal Court and proceedings pending in the Federal Court or before His Majesty in Council
(1) The Judges of the Federal Court holding office immediately before the commencement of this Constitution shall, unless they have elected otherwise, become ...
375Courts, authorities and officers to continue to function subject to the provisions of the Constitution
All courts of civil, criminal and revenue jurisdiction, all authorities and all officers, judicial, executive and ministerial, throughout the territory of Ind...
376Provisions as to Judges of High Courts
(1) Notwithstanding anything in this clause (2) of Article 217, the Judges of a High Court in any Province holding office immediately before the commencement ...
377Provisions as to Comptroller and Auditor-General of India
The Auditor-General of India holding office immediately before the commencement of this Constitution shall, unless he has elected otherwise, become on such co...
378Provisions as to Public Service Commissions
(1) The members of the Public Service Commission for the Dominion of India holding office immediately before the commencement of this Constitution shall, unle...
378ASpecial provisions as to duration of Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly
Notwithstanding anything contained in Article 172, the Legislative Assembly of the State of Andhra Pradesh as constituted under the provisions of Sections 28 ...
379-391[Repealed]
392Power of the President to remove difficulties
(1) The President may, for the purpose of removing any difficulties, particularly in relation to the transition from the provisions of the Government of India...
Part XXIIShort title, commencement, Authoritative text in Hindi and Repeals
393Short title
This Constitution may be called the Constitution of India....
394Commencement
This article and Articles 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 60, 324, 366, 367, 379, 380, 388, 391, 392 and 393 shall come into force at once, and the remaining provisions of thi...
395Repeals
The Indian Independence Act, 1947, and the Government of India Act, 1935, together with all enactment's amending or supplementing the latter Act, but not incl...
ScheduleFirst Schedule
 Name Territories1. Andhra Pradesh The territories specified in sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Andhra State Act, 1953, sub-section (1) of section 3 of th...
Second Schedule
 1. There shall be paid to the President and to the Governors of the States *** the following emoluments per mensem, that is to say:— The President 10,000 rup...
Third Schedule
Forms of Oaths or Affirmations  I Form of oath of office for a Minister for the Union: ‘I, A.B., do that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitu...
Fourth Schedule
Allocation of seats in the Council of States  For each State or Union territory specified in the first column of the following table, there shall be allotted ...
Fifth Schedule
Provisions as to the Administration and Control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes  General— In this Schedule, unless the context otherwise requires, the...
Sixth Schedule
Provisions as to the Administration of Tribal Areas in the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram (1) Subject to the provisions of this paragraph, th...
Seventh Schedule
 List I—Union List  1. Defense of India and every part thereof including preparation for defense and all such acts as may be conducive in times of war to its ...
Eighth Schedule
Languages 1. Assamese. 2. Bengali. 3. Gujarati. 4. Hindi. 5. Kannada. 6. Kashmiri. 7. Konkani. 8. Malayalam. 9. Manipuri. 10. Marathi.11. Nepali. 12. Oriya. 13....
Ninth Schedule
1. The Bihar Land Reforms Act, 1950 (Bihar Act XXX of 1950). 2 The Bombay Tenancy and Agricultural Lands Act, 1948 (Bombay Act LXVII of 1948). 3. The Bombay M...
Tenth Schedule
Provisions as to disqualification on ground of defection In this Schedule, unless the context otherwise requires,—(a) ‘House’ means either House of Parliamen...
Eleventh Schedule
1. Agriculture, including agricultural extension. 2. Land improvement, implementation of land reforms, land consolidation and soil conservation. 3. Minor irri...
Twelfth Schedule
1. Urban planning including town planning.2. Regulation of land-use and construction of buildings. 3. Planning for economic and social development. 4. Roads a...
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