This occurs when an employee consistently is absent from work. Seldom does this individual have a valid reason. However, if valid reasons are given the absence does not qualify as such. Attendance management is the system that monitors this occurrence.
A country who can more efficiently generate a good or service than another. This is a big advantage in business. This theory was first suggested by the UK economist Adam Smith as an extension of his division of labor doctrine. Other terms that might help are absolute cost advantage and competitive advantage.