A FORTIORI : Latin and means more effective or with greater reason.

A P N : In medical jurisprudence. Want of breath; difficulty in breathing; partial or temporary suspension of respiration ; specifically, such difficulty of respiration resulting from over-oxygenation of the blood, and in this distinguished from "asphyxia," which is a condition resulting from a deficiency of oxygen in the blood due to suffocation or any serious interference with normal respiration. The two terms were formerly (but improperly) used synonymously.

A PRIORI : Latin, is concluded from what has happened previously and that certain affects must by necessity will follow.


A TORT : French for unjustly and without reason.

A VIA : In the civil law. A grandmother. Inst. 3, 6, 3.

A-SHARE : This share of stock features rental rights but no control rights over the company. The lack of authority generally provides a discount in price

AB INITIO : Latin, for from the first act or meaning from the start.

ABANDON : An investor deciding not to sell or act upon an option at the end of the contract. Also:

ABANDONED PROPERTY : The property that an owner has given up all claims, possession and rights. No designation has been given as the possessor.

ABANDONMENT CLAUSE : The abandonment clause gives insured parties the right to forfeit damaged property in exchange for full payment. Insurance companies take ownership of the damaged asset.

ABANDONMENT OF CHILD : Deserting a child and having no intention of fulfilling any obligations to the child. Cutting off all relations and obligations to the child.

ABANDONMENT OF SPOUS : The leaving of a husband or wife without just cause and with a deliberate intention of creating a lifetime separation.

ABANDONMENT OF TRADE : Giving up using a trademark and explicitly showing the intention of giving it up.

ABANDONMENT VALUE : The amount earned if an investment is discontinued. The general rule for this situation is that if the amount received for scrap or salvage is more than the net present value (NPV) the project is abandoned.

ABATABLE NUISANCE : Not a permanent nuisance but one that can be corrected easily as not to harm anyone.

ABATEMENT : 1. Commerce: a reduction in the amount of a bill due to factors such as demurrage, overtime penalty, or rent. 2. Environment: to reduce or eliminate polluting or hazardous substances. This is done by removing them or considering a new plan of more efficient waste management. 3. Legal: A court decision that is suspended, or simply closing the case before the final decision is reached. 4. Taxation: A rebate given under special circumstances such as in aftermath of natural disasters.

ABATEMENT COST : A cost that occurs because a company creates a negative byproduct. This byproduct must be removed or the effect must be reduced.

ABATEMENT OF ACTION : Putting an end to a law suit. If the matter is to be further pursued a new action or suit must be brought about.

ABATEMENT OF BEQUEST : The procedure that will be carried out when there is not enough money in an estate to fulfil all debts and bequests.

ABATEMENT OF TAX ASS : Decreasing the amount of tax that is imposed upon a person.

ABATOR : A person who takes a property before the heir has a chance to get the property.

ABBREVIATED ACCOUNTS : A simplified financial statement that a specific small firm is allowed to file. It is filed with the registrar of companies in the United Kingdom. Almost half of the active UK firms have chosen abbreviated accounts for their companies. Another term for abridged accounts.

ABBROCHMENT : Purchasing items in wholesale in order to sell them as retail. This prevents competitors from buying the good creating a monopoly. Abbroachment is another term for this business transaction.

ABC AGREEMENT : When an employee and brokerage firm do business this is the resulting contract. It is done in the form of an outline that lists the rights of the firm. This agreement is applied when an employee opts into the New York Stock Exchange.

ABC INVENTORY CLASSI : The Pareto analysis as related to inventory control. There are three categories for the items in question. This is based on their revenue generation, turnover, or value. Typically this is done on the ABC model where an A is the best stock and C is the worse stock. Other terms for this concept are usage value analysis and ABC analysis.

ABDICATE : Disowning, relinquishing completely and to renounce.

ABDUCTION : A criminal offense. The taking by force or strong persuasion of a wife, husband, child or other person.

ABDUCTIVE REASONING : A reasoning methodology that uses common facts that are accepted as true and using them to build your argument.

ABEND : An abnormal or abortive end to a computer program. This system crash is usually caused by a glitch or a memory overload.

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