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JUS PROTEGENDI : In the civil law, The name of a servitude. It is a right by which a part of the roof or tiling of one house is made to extend over the adjoining house. Dig. 50, 10, 242, 1; Id. 8, 2, 25; Id. 8, 5, 8, 5.

JUSTIFICATION : A maintaining or showing a sufficient reason in court why the defendant did what he is called upon to answer, particularly in an action of libel. A defense of justification is a defense showing the libel to be true, or in an action of assault showing the violence to have been necessary. See Steph. Pi. 184. In practice. The proceeding by which bail establish their ability to perform the undertaking of the bond or recognizance

JURO : In Spanish law. A certain perpetual pension, granted by the king ou the public reveuues, aud more especially on the salt-works, by favor, either in consideration of meritorious services, or in return for money loaned the government, or obtained by it through forced loans. Escriche.

JUS PR^TORIUM : In the civil law. The discretion of the prator, as distinct from the leges, or standing laws. 3 Bl. Comm. 49. That kind of law which the pr;etors introduced for the purpose of aiding, supplying, or correcting the civil law for the public benefit. Dig. 1, 1, 7. Called, also, "jus honorarium," (q. v.)

JOINT BALLOT : In parliamentary practice, a joint ballot is an election or vote by ballot participated in by the members of both houses of a legislative assembly sitting together as one body, the result being determined by a majority of the votes cast by the joint assembly thus constituted, instead of by concurrent majorities of the two houses. See State v. Shaw, 9 S. C. 144.

JAQUES : In old English law. Small money.

JACTURA : In the civil law. A throwing of goods overboard in a storm; jettison. Loss from such a cause. Calvin.

JAPANESE GOVERNMENT : The japanese government allows these securites for general business purposes.

JAIL DELIVERY : See GAOL.

JAMMABUNDY, JUMMABUN : In Hindu law. A written schedule of the whole of an assessment.

JAIL : A gaol; a prison; a building designated by law, or regularly used, for the confinement of persons held in lawful custody. State v. Bryan, 89 N. C. 034. See GAOL.

JACET IN ORE : Lat. In old English law. It lies in the mouth. Fleta, lib. 5, c. 5,

JAILBREAK : the term used to describe an escape from jail that is accompanied by violence and force.

JAIL LIBERTIES : See GAOL.

JAIL-HOUSE LAWYER : term given to a prisoner who studies law while he is in jail so he can help himself and other inmates.

JAMBEAUX : In old English and feudal law. Leg-armor. Blount.

JEM AN : In old records. Yeoman. Cowell ; Blount

JUDICIAL PRIVILEGE : Protection from any statement made during judicial proceedings that is given to each attorney, judge, juror, litigant party, or witness who are a part of said legal proceedings.

JUSTICE OF THE PEACE : In American law. A judicial officer of inferior rank holding a court not of record, and having (usually) civil jurisdiction of a limited nature, for the trial of minor cases, to an extent prescribed by statute, and for the conservation of the peace and the preliminary hearing of criminal complaints and the commitment of offenders. See Wenzler v. People, 58 N. Y. 530; Com. v. Frank, 21 Pa. Co. Ct. R. 120; Weikel v. Cate, 58 Md. 110; Smith v. Abbott, 17 N. J. Law, 366; People y. Mann, 97 N. Y. 530, 49 Am. Rep. 556. In English law. Judges of record appointed by the crown to be justices within a certain district, (e. g., a county or borough,) for the conservation of the peace, and for the execution of divers things, comprehended within their commission and within divers statutes, committed to their charge. Stone, J. Pr. 2.

JACK : A kind of defensive coat-armor worn by horsemen in war; not made of solid iron, but of many plates fastened together. Some tenants were bound by their tenure to find it upon invasion. Cowell.

JURAL : 1. Pertaining to natural or positive right, or to the doctrines of rights and obligations; as "jural relations." 2. Of or pertaining to jurisprudence; juristic ; juridical. 3. Recognized or sanctioned by positive law; embraced within, or covered by, the rules and enactments of positive law. Thus, the "jural sphere" is to be distinguished from the "moral sphere;" the latter denoting the whole scope or range of ethics or the science of conduct, the former embracing only such portions of the same as have been made the subject of legal sanction or recognition. 4. Founded in law; organized upon the basis of a fundamental law, and existing for the recognition and protection of rights. Thus, the term "jural society" is used as the synonym of "state" or "organized political community." JURAMENTUM. Lat. In the civil law. An oath.

JUSTICE, n : In jurisprudence. The constant and perpetual disposition to render every man his due. Inst. 1, 1, pr.; 2 Inst. 56. See Borden v. State, 11 Ark. 528, 44 Am. Dec. 217; Duncan v. Magette, 25 Tex. 253; The John E. Mulford (D. C.) 18 Fed. 455. The conformity of our actions and our will to the law. Toull. Droit Civil Fr. tit. prfl. no. 5. In the most extensive sense of the word it differs little from “virtue;” for it includes within itself the whole circle of virtues. Yet the I JUSTICE common distinction between them is that that which, considered positively and in itself, is called “virtue,” when considered relatively and with respect to others has the name of “justice.” But “justice,” being in itself a part of “virtue,” is contiued to things simply good or evil, and consists in a man’s taking such a proportion of them as he ought. Bouvier. Commutative justice is that which should govern contracts. It cousists in rendering to every man the exact measure of his dues, wi

JOINDER OF OFFENSES : the joining of several different charges of criminal actions into the one case.

JUDAISMUS : The religion and rites of the Jews. Du Cange. A quarter set apart for residence of Jews. A usurious rate of interest. 1 Mon. Angl. S39; 2 Mon. Angl. 10,665. Sex marcus stcrlingorum ad ac- quietandam terram prcedietum de Judaismo, in quo fuit impignorata. Du Cange. An income anciently accruing to the king from the Jews. Blount.

JUS PUBLICUM : Public law, or the law relating to the constitution and functions of government and its officers and the administration of criminal justice. Also public ownership, or the paramount or sovereign territorial right or title of the state or government. See Jus PRIVATUM. Jus publicum et privatum quod ex natnralibus prrcceptis aut gentium aut civilibus est collectum; et quod in jure scripto jus appellatur, id in lege An- glise rectum esse dicitur. Co. Litt. 185. Public and private law is that which is collected from natural principles, either of nations or in states; and that which in the civil law is called "jus." in the law of England is said to be "right." Jus publicum privatorum pactis mn- tari non potest. A public law or right cannot be altered by the agreements of private persons.

JOINT COMMITTEE : A joint committee of a legislative body comprising two chambers is a committee consisting of representatives of each of the two houses, meeting and acting together as one committee.

JURY OF EXECUTIVE OP : For a specific decision or forecast, the combining and averaging of views of several contributing executives. A face-to-face session to provide essential information immediately, quickly, without using elaborate data manipulation and statistical techniques. Top executives in finance, human resources, marketing, purchasing, and production meet with the board of directors. These executives provide background information, experiences, and opinions.

JUDICIAL : Belonging to the office of a judge; as judicial authority. Relating to or connected with the administration of justice; as a judicial officer. Having the character of judgment or formal legal procedure; as a judicial act. Proceeding from a court of justice; as a judicial writ, a judicial determination.

JAMPNUM : Furze, or grass, or ground where furze grows; as distinguished from "arable," "pasture," or the like. Co. Litt. 5a.

JAILER : A keeper or warden of a prison or jail.

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