IPC Section 1 - Title and extent of operation of the Code

This Act shall be called the Indian Penal Code, and shall [extend to the whole of India [except the State of Jammu and Kashmir]]

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This Act is known as Indian Penal code, and it applies to all over India, except the State of Jammu and Kashmir, as they have their separate Penal code.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 2 - Punishment of offences committed within India

Every person shall be liable to punishment under this Code and not otherwise for every act or omission contrary to the provisions thereof, of which he shall be guilty within [India]

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whosoever found guilty of such an offence or omits an act which are mentioned in the Indian Penal Code, shall be liable for punishment under this code.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 3 - Punishment of offences committed beyond, but which by law maybe tried within, India.

Any person liable, by any [Indian law], to be tried for an offence committed beyond [India] shall be dealt with according to the provisions of this Code for any act committed beyond [India] in the same manner as if such act had been committed within [India]

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Anyone commits any act in violations with any other act prevailing within India or any act committed outisde India shall be dealt as if the act was comitted within India and that person shall be made liable under the provisions of this act.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 4 - Extension of Code to extra-territorial offences

The provisions of this Code apply also to any offence committed by--

 [(1) any citizen of India in any place without and beyond India;

 (2) any person on any ship or aircraft registered in India wherever it may be.

(3) any person in any place without and beyond India committing offence targeting a computer resource located in India. ] 

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This act means any citizen of India, in or outside the boundries of India or present on any ship or aircraft registered in India or any person who is targating any computer recorce loacted in India shall be tried under this Act and also Information and Techonology Act, 2000

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 5 - Certain laws not to be affected by this Act

Nothing in this Act shall affect the provisions of any Act for punishing mutiny and desertion of officers, soldiers, sailors or airmen in the service of the Government of India or the provision of any special or local law.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Provisions of this act will not affect offences committed by officers, sailors, soldiers or airmen (those who are in service for Government of India) as they have their personal laws by which they are governed; For example Army and Air force act, 1901 etc. 

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 6 - Definitions in the Code to be understood subject to exceptions

Throughout this Code every definition of an offence, every penal provision and every illustration of every such definition or penal provision, shall be understood subject to the exceptions contained in the Chapter entitled "General Exceptions", though those exceptions are not repeated in such definition, penal provision, or illustration.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

In this code whatever defination of an offence each and every provision and every illustration shall be understood or read keeping in mind the General Exceptions which are dealt in this chapter of the code. For example, it is no where written that a child under 7 year of age cannot commit an offence, rather it's written that Nothing is an offence which is committed by a child of under 7 years age.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 7 - Sense of expression once explained

Every expression which is explained in any part of this Code, is used in every part of this Code in conformity with the explanation.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Every expression which is explained in any part of this Code, is used in every part of this Code in conformity with the explanation.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 8 - Gender

The pronoun "he" and its derivatives are used of any person, whether male or female

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

In this code wherever He is mentioned (like who commits an act he shall be made liable, one who commits theft he shall be held liable) it is mentioned without Gender, that means He in this act denotes both 'He' & 'She'.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 9 - Numbers

Unless the contrary appears from the context, words importing the singular number include the plural number, and words importing the plural number include the singular number.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Unless the contrary appears from the context, words importing the singular number include the plural number, and words importing the plural number include the singular number.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 10 - "Man". "Woman"

The word "man" denotes a male human being of any age; the word "woman" denotes a female human being of any age.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

In this act wherever the word  'man' is written it means a male human being of any age (except a minor, child under 18 is denoted by the term 'minor', be it boy or girl), and the word 'women' means a female human being of any age (except minor).

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 11 - Person

The word "person" includes any Company or Association or body of persons, whether incorporated or not.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The word "person" mentioned in this act dentes any company or association or a body corporate. As company is an Artificial Person, which can be held liable for offences such as Theft, Fraud etc.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 12 - Public

The word "public" includes any class of the public or any community".

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The word "public" mentioned in this Code is a reference to a class of public or any community; for example PIL (Public Intrest Litigation) is filed for the public, it may inclue 100, 1000 or more.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Repelled by the Adaptation Order 1950

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 14 - Servant of Government

The words "servant of Government" denote any officer or servant continued, appointed or employed in India by or under the authority of Government.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Wherever 'Servant of Government' mentioned in this act it denotes all those officers who are working in the public offices, under the Authority of Government.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Repelled by the Adaptation Order 1937

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Repelled by the Adaptation Order 1937

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 17 - Government

The word "Government" denotes the Central Government or the Government of a ****State.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

It denotes central government or government of a particular state.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 18 - India

"India" means the territory of India excluding
the State of Jammu and Kashmir.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

In this act the term "India" means the territory of India except the state of Jammu & Kashmir (Jammu & Kashmir have their own Penal Code).

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 19 - Judge

The word "Judge" denotes not only every person who is officially designated as a Judge, but also every person who is empowered by law to give, in any legal proceeding, civil or criminal, a definitive judgment, or a judgment which, if not appealed against, would be definitive, or a judgment which, if confirmed by some other authority, would be definitive, or  who is one of a body of persons, which body of persons is empowered by law to give such a judgment.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

In this act the word "Judge" not only includes Judges of Supreme Court various High Courts or District Court, but also anyone who is empowered by law prevailing in India to carry out a legal proceeding or to pronounce a Judgement, or a body of persons (say Panchayat), they all will be considerd as "Judges" in the proceeding which they held.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 20 - Court of Justice

The words "Court of Jutsice" denote a Judge who is empowered by law to act judicially alone, or a body of Judges which is empowered by law to act judicially as a body, when such Judge or body of Judges is acting judicially.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

When a judge or a body of judges who are empowered by law to act Judicially as a body, it will be known as court of Justice; for example a panchayat which is having power to try and determine suits, will be known as court of justice.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 21 - Public Servant

The words "public servant" denote a person
falling under any of the descriptions hereinafter following, namely:--
 1* * * * 
 Second.--Every Commissioned Officer in the Military, [Naval or Air] Forces [4**** of India];
[Third.--Every Judge including any person empowered by law to discharge, whether by himself or as a member of any body of persons. any adjudicatory functions;]
 Fourth.--Every officer of a Court of Justice [(including a liquidator, receiver or commissioner)] whose duty it is, as such officer, to investigate or report on any matter of law or fact, or to make, authenticate, or keep any document, or to take charge or dispose of any property, or to execute any judicial process, or to administer any oath, or to interpret, or to preserve order in the Court, and every person specially authorized by a Court of Justice to perform any of such duties;
 Fifth.--Every juryman, assessor, or member of a panchayat assisting a Court of Justice or public servant;
 Sixth.--Every arbitrator or other person to whom any cause or matter has been referred for decision or report by any Court of Justice, or by any other competent public authority;
Seventh.--Every person who holds any office by virtue of which he is empowered to place or keep any person in confinement;
Eighth.--Every officer of [the Government] whose duty it is, as such officer, to prevent offences, to give information of offences, to bring offenders to justice, or to protect the public health, safety or convenience;
 Ninth.--Every officer whose duty it is as such officer, to take, receive, keep or expend any property on behalf of [the Government], or to make any survey, assessment or contract on behalf of [the Government], or to execute any revenue- process, or to investigate, or to report, on any matter affecting the pecuniary interests of [the Government], or to make authenticate or keep any document relating to the pecuniary interests of [the Government], or to prevent the infraction of any law for the protection of the pecuniary interests of [the Government];
Tenth.--Every officer whose duty it is, as such officer, to take, receive, keep or expend any property, to make any survey or assessment or to levy any rate or tax for any secular common purpose of any village, town or district, or to make, authenticate or keep any document for the ascertaining of the rights of the people of any village, town or district;                                                                                                                         [Eleventh.--Every person who holds any office in virtue of which he is empowered to prepare, publish, maintain or revise an electoral roll or to conduct an election or part of an election;]
[Twelfth.--Every person--
 (a) in the service or pay of the Government or remunerated by fees or commission for the performance of any public duty by the Government;
 (b) in the service or pay of a local authority, a corporation established by or under a Central, Provincial or State Act or a Government company as defined in section 617  of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956).] 

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section describes who all are public servants: first was repelled by adaption and orders, 1950; Second means, every comissioned officer of either Military, Navy or Air force of India. Third means every Judge or any person who is empowered by law to discharge any person of his duties. Fourth means any person of court of justice who orders or comissions any act thereby enabiling law and order in the court, or one who executes any judicial process will come unde rthe ambit of public servant. Fifth every member who's assisting the panchayat raj or any officer of court of justice or public servant will also come under the ambit of public servant. Sixth every arbitrator or any other person to whom any matter has been sent for further enquiry or solution or has been asked of any report by any other competent public authority. Seventh every person who is empowered by law to keep a place or to keep a person in confinement; for example a jailor who is keeping a prisoner in custody or anyone who is empowered to carry out any such power and such power is from the government, he will come under the ambit of this section. Eighth every officer of government who has the power to prevent offences or to bring wrong doer to the custody, to carry out investigations or to protect public health saftey or convenience will come under this act; For example a police officer or a traffic police man or a CBI officer, all these are empowered by the Government to protect public and maintain law & order. Ninth every officer who is empowered by government to carry out contracts in the name of government to carry out sale deeds or purchases, who will  keep record of all authenticate documents, who will prevent the infraction of law will come under this act.  Tenth  any officer whose duty is to impose levay taxes or review any of them on behalf of the government for the common purpose of any town village or property. Eleventh any person who is empowerd to prepare, publish, maintain or revise an electoral roll or to conduct an election or part of an election will come under this act. Twelfth any person appointed by government who will remunerate fees or comission for carrying out any public duty by the government, , or in the service of any government company as defined in section 617 of the companies act, 1956.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 22 - Movable Property

The words "movable property" are intended to include corporeal property of every description, except land and things attached to the earth or permanently fastened to anything which is attached to the earth.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means any property which is not attached to earth is movable property, for eg will papers, property papers, motar car, a book etc.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 23 - Wrongful gain Wrongful loss Gaining wrongfully, losing wrongfully

"Wrongful gain" is gain by unlawful means of property to which the person gaining is not legally entitled. 
A person is said to gain wrongfully when such person retains wrongfully, as well as when such person acquires wrongfully. A person is said to lose wrongfully when such person is wrongfully kept out of any property, as well as when such person is wrongfully deprived of property

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means that you acquire something wrongfully, for example you concieve someone into selling them an article worth Rupess 10 for Rupees 50, that is wrongful gain

It means when someone loses their property by unlawful means; For example some goons forcefully taking Mr. X bag of jewels, that’s wrongful loss.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 24 - Dishonestly

Whoever does anything with the intention of causing wrongful gain to one person or wrongful loss to another person, is said to do that thing "dishonestly"

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

When someone has intention to cause someone wrongful gain or someone wrongful loss, the person who causes such an act will come under this section; For example Mr X comes to Mr Y in order to purchase his horse Mr X enquired about the horse physical condition to which Mr Y dishonestly says that the horse is fine, for which he knew horse to be insane. 

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 25 - Fraudulently

A person is said to do a thing fraudulently if he does that thing with intent to defraud but not otherwise.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

A person is said to do a thing fraudulently if he does that thing with intent to defraud but not otherwise.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 26 - Reason to believe

A person is said to do a thing fraudulently if he does that thing with intent to defraud but not otherwise.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section simply means if a person have enough reasons to belive certain thing and not otherwise it'll come under reason to belive; For example Police have reason to belive upon finding fingerprint match on murder weapon that Mrs X has murdered her husband Mr Y. this is reason to belive.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 27 - Property in possession of wife, clerk or servant

When property is in the possession of a person's wife, clerk or servant, on account of that person, it is in that person's possession within the meaning of this Code.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This act means when any property is in favour of someone's wife, clerk or servant that means the property they are holding are thier own by this code; For example Mr A has transffered 3 parts of land in order to evade taxes one in the name of his wife another 2 in name of his 2 servents, all these 3 property are his own by this code

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 28 - Counterfeit

A person is said to "counterfeit" who causes one thing to resemble another thing, intending by means of that resemblance to practise deception, or knowing it to be likely that deception will thereby be practised.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means when a person with full knowledge of his act creates a thing which is of reseblence of another thing which is already in existance , then that person will fall under this section.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 29 - Document

The word "document" denotes any matter expressed or described upon any substance by means of letters, figures or marks, or by more than one of those means, intended to be used, or which may be used, as evidence of that matter.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This sectons denotes what is a document it's not specified that a certain kind of papers can be document only; for example a cheque a will property papers all these are documents.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 29A - Electronic record

The words "electronic record" shall have the meaning assigned to them in clause (t) of sub-section (1) of section 2 of the Information Technology Act, 2000.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This act means that the meaning of term "electronic record" will be found in the Information and Technology Act, 2000.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 30 - Valuable security

The words "valuable security" denote a document which is, or purports to be, a document whereby any legal right is created, extended, transferred, restricted, extinguished or released, or who hereby any person acknowledges that he lies under legal liability, or has not a certain legal right.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This act describes valuable security as in any document which is holding a legal value or value in monetory terms or related to property, anything which holds value will come under valuable security; For example A will, property papers etc.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 31 - A Will

The words "a will" denote any testamentary document.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

A document which denotes what will happen to a person property upon his demise or when he gives it up.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 32 - Words referring to acts include illegal omissions

In every part of this Code, except where a contrary intention appears from the context, words which refer to acts done extend also to illegal omissions

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

In every part of this Code, except where a contrary intention appears from the context, words which refer to acts done extend also to illegal omissions

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 33 - "Act", "Omission"

The word "act" denotes as well as series of acts as a single act: the word "omission" denotes as well a series of omissions as a single omission.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

In this section the word Act denotes one act or several Acts as 'Act', and the word Omission denotes one omission or several omissions as 'Omission'.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 34 - Acts done by several persons in furtherance of common intention

When a criminal act is done by several persons in furtherance of the common intention of all, each of such persons is liable for that act in the same manner as if it were done by him alone.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if an act is done by several person having common intention of committing that act, they will all be liable the same way as if one person would have done that act. For example 3 persons planning to kill one person one will provide substance other 2 will kill, all 3 will be equally liable. This is known as common intention or having similar intention.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 35 - When such an act is criminal by reason of its being done with a criminal knowledge or intention.

Whenever an act, which is criminal only by reason of its being done with a criminal knowledge or intention, is done by several persons, each of such persons who joins in the act with such knowledge or intention is liable for the act in the same manner as if the act were done by him alone with that knowledge or intention.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section can also be called as Joint Liability, it means if an act (criminal) is done with the intention or knowledge which is criminal, all the person will be charged as such as if one person would have done the act.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 36 - Effect caused partly by act and partly by omission.

Wherever the causing of a certain effect, or an attempt to cause that effect, by an act or by an omission, is an offence, it is to be understood that the causing of that effect partly by an act and partly by an omission is the same offence.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if any person causes certain act or attempts to cause or omits by which the act takes place which injures other person the act said to be the same as if he had done it intentionally 

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 37 - Co-operation by doing one of several acts constituting an offence.

When an offence is committed by means of several acts, whoever intentionally co-operates in the commission of that offence by doing any one of those acts, either singly or jointly with any other person, commits that offence.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means when an act is committed by several person following by their individual acts, they will be held liable equally as if one of them has done the act. For example A and B agrees to give harfmful medicines to C each day, C dies both A and B will be liable equally even though their acts were seperate but lead to the effect of C death.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 38 - Persons concerned in criminal Act may be guilty of different offences.

Where several persons are engaged or concerned in the commission of a criminal act, they may be guilty of different offences by means of that act.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means when several persons are engaged in a criminal act they may be guilty of different offences by commission of their acts. For eg X & Y are engaged in a fight with Z, Z said offensive words against X's wife provoking X to attack him, and Y having ill will against Z also assists X in the act. Both will be tried differently.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 39 - Voluntarily

A person is said to cause an effect "voluntarily" when he causes it by means whereby he intended to cause it, or by means which, at the time of employing those means, he knew or had reason to believe to be likely to cause it.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means when a person voluntarily does such an act which is likely to cause harm or loss of life, even though he is not intented to kill anybody or feel sorry for loss of life, he knew something likely would happen, he'll be liable under this section. For example A is Driving at a speed of 80 KMps in a narrow lane, risks are that someone might get hurt, and someone died it will be as A has voluntarily done the said act.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 40 - Offence

Except in the [Chapters] and sections mentioned in clauses 2 and 3 of this section, the word "offence" denotes a thing made punishable by this Code.  In Chapter IV, [Chapter VA] and in the following sections, namely, sections [64, 65, 66, 5*[67], 71], 109, 110, 112, 114, 115, 116, 117, 187, 194, 195, 203, 211, 213, 214, 221, 222, 223, 224,225, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 347, 348, 388, 389 and 445, the word "offence" denotes a thing punishable under this Code, or under any special or local law as hereinafter defined.  And in sections 141, 176, 177, 201, 202, 212, 216 and 441, the word "offence" has the same meaning when the thing punishable under the special or local law is punishable under such law with imprisonment for a term of six months or upwards, whether with or without fine.]

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means the word offence denotes a thing which is punishable under this code. Except clause 2 and 3, clause 2 says it's punishable under this code or any other code hereinafter mentioned, clause 3 states the term offence is punishable under local law or any other special law for which imprisonment is for term of 6 months or more and can be with or without fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 41 - Special Law

A "special law" is a law applicable to a particular subject.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means a special law deals with a particular subject of law; For example Contract law, Hindu Marriage Act etc.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 42 - Local Law

A "local law" is a law applicable only to a particular part of  [*****[India]].

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section talks about what is a Local Law, it is a law which is applicable to a certain part for where it is made; For example Delhi land Reforms Act, 1954, Delhi water Board Act, 1998 etc.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 43 - "Illegal". "Legally bound to do"

The word "illegal" is applicable to everything which is an offence or which is prohibited by law, or which furnishes ground for a civil action; and a person is said to be "legally bound to do" whatever it is illegal in him to omit.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section talks about what word Illegal means, it's everything which is prohibited by law or which forms a ground for legal action. And legally bound to do means whatever is an illegal act you have to omit it.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 44 - Injury

The word "injury" denotes any harm whatever illegally caused to any person, in body, mind, reputation or property.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section talks about Injury wether caused to a person's mind body or reputation, for eg, saying something bad, untrue about him to anyone might cause injury to his reputation (Defamation), or beating someone with a stick causing bodily injury.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 45 - Life

The word "life" denotes the life of a human being, unless the contrary appears from the context.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section talks about life, i.e. life of a human being

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 46 - Death

The word "death" denotes the death of a human being unless the contrary appears from the context.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section talks about Death, i.e. Death of a human being

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 47 - Animal

The word "animal" denotes any living creature, other than a human being.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The word "animal" denotes any living creature, other than a human being.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 48 - Vessel

The word "vessel" denotes anything made for the conveyance by water of human beings or of property.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The word "vessel" denotes anything made for the conveyance by water of human beings or of property.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 49 - "Year","Month"

Wherever the word "year" or the word "month" is used, it is to be understood that the year or the month is to be reckoned according to the British calendar. 

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Wherever the word "year" or the word "month" is used, it is to be understood that the year or the month is to be reckoned according to the British calendar. 

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 50 - Section

The word "section" denotes one of those portions of a Chapter of this Code which are distinguished by prefixed numeral figures.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The word "section" denotes one of those portions of a Chapter of this Code which are distinguished by prefixed numeral figures.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 51 - Oath

The word "oath" includes a solemn affirmation substituted by law for an oath, and any declaration required or authorized by law to be made before a public servant or to be used for the purpose of proof, whether in a Court of Justice or not.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section explains about what an Oath is, It's a solemn affirmation that one shall speak only truth in the court of law.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 52 - Good Faith

Nothing is said to be done or believed in"good faith" which is done or believed without due care and attention.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section explains if an act isin't done with due care and caution it cannot be called an act of good faith.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 52A - Harbour

Except in section 157, and in section 130 in the case in which the harbour is given by the wife or husband of the person harboured, the word "harbour" includes the supplying a person with shelter, food, drink, money, clothes, arms, ammunition or means of conveyance, or the assisting a person by any means, whether of the same kind as those enumerated in this section or not, to evade apprehension.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Except in section 157, and in section 130 in the case in which the harbour is given by the wife or husband of the person harboured, the word "harbour" includes the supplying a person with shelter, food, drink, money, clothes, arms, ammunition or means of conveyance, or assisting a person by any means, whether of the same kind as those enumerated in this section or not, to evade apprehension.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 53 - Punishment

The punishments to which offenders are liable under the provisions of this Code are—

First         —   Death;

Secondly — Imprisonment for life;

Fourthly  — Imprisonment, which is of two description namely:

      (1) Rigorous, that is, with hard labour;                                                              

      (2) Simple;

Fifthly     — Forfeiture of property;

Sixthly    — Fine.

 

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Offenders liable under this act will be awarded ;

Firstly, with death punishment

Secondly, life imprisonment

*Thirdly,-Penal servitude;"" was repealed. by Act 17 of 1949, s. 2 (w.e.f. 6-4-1949)."

Fourthly, with either of the two punishments:

(1) Severe labour

(2) Easy and simple labour.

Fifthly, with surrendering  property

Sixthly, with fine

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 53A - Construction of reference to transportation

(1) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (2) and sub-section (3), any reference to "transportation for life" in any other law for the time being in force or in any instrument or order having effect by virtue of any such law or of any enactment repealed shall be construed as a reference to "imprisonment for life".

(2) In every case in which a sentence of transportation for a term has been passed before the commencement of the Code of Criminal Procedure (Amendment) Act, [1955], (26 of 1955), the offender shall be dealt with in the same manner as if sentenced to rigorous imprisonment for the same term.

(3) Any reference to transportation for a term or to transportation for any shorter term (by whatever name called) in any other law for the time being in force shall be deemed to have been omitted.

(4) Any reference to "transportation" in any other law for the time being in force shall,-

(a) if the expression means transportation for life, be construed as a reference to imprisonment for life;

(b) if the expression means transportation for any shorter term, be deemed to have been omitted.

 

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

(1) Subject to sub section (2) and sub section  (3) ,‘Transportation for life’ in any law for time being under consideration or any instrument or order having effect if by virtue of any law or enactment is repealed then it  will be interpreted as ‘life imprisonment’.

 (2)  Whenever a sentence of transportation for a term has been passed before beginning of the Code of Criminal Procedure (Amendment) Act, [1955], (26 of 1955, then the offender shall be dealt with in the same manner as if sentenced to rigorous imprisonment for the same term.

(3) Any reference to short term transportation for the time being in consideration is deemed to have been omitted.

(4) Any reference to "transportation for life" in any other law would be interpreted as imprisonment for life and any reference to shorter term will be considered to have been removed.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 54 - Commutation of sentence of death

In every case in which sentence of death shall have been passed, [the appropriate Government] may, without the consent of the offender, commute the punishment for any other punishment provided by this Code.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whenever death sentence is passed then the appropriate government without the assent of the offender has the authority to trade the punishment with any other punishment provided in the code.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 55 - Commutation of sentence of imprisonment for life

In every case in which sentence of [imprisonment] for life shall have been passed, [the appropriate Government] may, without the consent of the offender, commute the punishment for imprisonment of either description for a term not exceeding fourteen years.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whenever the offender is awarded with life imprisonment then the appropriate government without gaining consent of the offender can award imprisonment up to 14 years.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 55A - Definition of "appropriate Government"

In sections fifty-four and fifty-five the expression "appropriate Government" means,-

(a) in cases where the sentence is a sentence of death or is for an offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the Union extends, the Central Government; and

(b) in cases where the sentence (whether of death or not) is for an offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the State extends, the Government of the State within which the offender is sentenced.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Appropriate Government within the purview of section Section 54 and Section 55 means:

(a) In any case when death sentence is awarded or for any offence committed against any law relating to the matter to which executive power of the union extends to.

(b) In any case when death sentence is awarded or not awarded for any offence against any law to which executive power of the State extends to.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 56 - Sentence of Europeans and Americans to penal servitude

Proviso as to sentence for term exceeding ten years but not for life.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Repealed by the Criminal Law (Removal of Racial Discriminations) Act, 1949 (17 of 1949) (w. e. f. 6-4-1949).

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 57 - Fractions of terms of punishment

In calculating fractions of terms of punishment, [imprisonment] for life shall be reckoned as equivalent to [imprisonment] for twenty years.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Life imprisonment can be held equivalent to imprisonment of an offender for twenty years.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 58 - Offenders sentenced to transportation how dealt with until transported.

Repealed by the Code of Criminal Procedure (Amendment) Act, 1955 (26 of 1955), section 117 and Schedule (w.e.f. 1-1-1956).

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Repealed by the Code of Criminal Procedure (Amendment) Act, 1955 (26 of 1955), section 117 and Schedule (w.e.f. 1-1-1956).

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 59 - Transportation instead of imprisonment.

Repealed by the Code of Criminal Procedure (Amendment) Act, 1955 (26 of 1955) s.117 and Sch.,(w.e.f. 1-1-1956).

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Repealed by the Code of Criminal Procedure (Amendment) Act, 1955 (26 of 1955) s.117 and Sch.,(w.e.f. 1-1-1956).

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 60 - Sentence may be (in certain cases of imprisonment) wholly or partly rigorous or simple.

In every case in which an offender is punishable with imprisonment which may be of either description, it shall be competent to the Court which sentences such offender to direct in the sentence that such imprisonment shall be wholly rigorous, or that such imprisonment shall be wholly simple or] that any part of such imprisonment shall be rigorous and the rest simple.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

In certain cases where life imprisonment is given then the court that is fit to award the punishment can either make the punishment wholly severe and partly simple or wholly simple and partly severe.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 61 - Sentence of forfeiture of property

Repealed by the Indian Penal Code (Amendment) Act, 1921 (16 of 1921), section. 4.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Repealed by the Indian Penal Code (Amendment) Act, 1921 (16 of 1921), section. 4.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 62 - Forfeiture of property, in respect of offenders punishable with death, transportation or imprisonment

It means that the property of the offenders who are awarded with  with death, transportation or imprisonment will be seized.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section was repealed., by section 4.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 63 - Amount of fine

Where no sum is expressed to which a fine may extend, the amount of fine to which the offender is liable is unlimited, but shall not be excessive.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Where there is no mention about the limit to which a fine can extend up to then in such cases fine can be charged limitlessly but not excessively.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 64 - Sentence of imprisonment for non-payment of fine

In every case of an offence punishable with imprisonment as well as fine, in which the offender is sentenced to a fine, whether with or without imprisonment, and in every case of an offence punishable [with imprisonment or fine, or] with fine only, in which the offender is sentenced to a fine.]it shall be competent to the Court which sentences such offender to direct by the sentence that, in default of payment of the fine, the offender shall suffer imprisonment for a certain term, which imprisonment shall be in excess of any other imprisonment to which he may have been sentenced or to which he may be liable under a commutation of a sentence.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

First para explains that by committing any offence if the offender is awarded with imprisonment and fine then the offender can be only fined whether with or without imprisonment. In this paragraph the imprisonment is replaced with fine.

In second paragraph if the offender is awarded with imprisonment and fine or with fine only then if there is default in payment of fine, then as per the decision of the competent court, offender is liable to undergo an additional term of imprisonment. Court is only empowered to provide with additional imprisonment in certain cases.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 65 - Limit to imprisonment for non-payment of fine, when imprisonment and fine awardable

The term for which the Court directs the offender to be imprisoned in default of payment of a fine shall not exceed one-fourth of the term of imprisonment which is the maximum fixed for the offence, if the offence be punishable with imprisonment as well as fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

If the offender is awarded with imprisonment and fine both then this section states that court cannot award additional imprisonment in excess of one-fourth of the term of maximum imprisonment fixed in the offence.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 66 - Description of imprisonment for non-payment of fine.

The imprisonment which the Court imposes in default of payment of a fine may be of any description to which the offender might have been sentenced for the offence.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Imprisonment in default of payment of fine might be rigorous or simple depending upon the nature of the offence.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 67 - Imprisonment for non-payment of fine, when offence punishable with fine only

If the offence be punishable with fine only,[the imprisonment which the Court imposes in default of payment of the fine shall be simple, and] the term for which the Court directs the offender to be imprisoned, in default of payment of fine, shall not exceed the following scale, that is to say, for any term not exceeding two months when the amount of the fine shall not exceed fifty rupees, and for any term not exceeding four months when the amount shall not exceed one hundred rupees, and for any term not exceeding six months in any other case.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

 If the amount of fine is not above  fifty rupees then he/she cannot be imprisoned beyond two months. In other case if the offender’s fine is not above hundred rupees then the imprisonment awarded shall be up to four months and not beyond six months.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 68 - Imprisonment to terminate on payment of fine

The imprisonment which is imposed in default of payment of a fine shall terminate whenever that fine is either paid or levied by process of law.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Punishment of Imprisonment in default of payment of fine will terminate after it is paid or will be collected as per the process of law.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 69 - Termination of imprisonment on payment of proportional part of fine

If, before the expiration of the term of imprisonment fixed in default of payment, such a proportion of the fine be paid or levied that the term of imprisonment suffered in default of payment is not less than proportional to the part of the fine still unpaid, the Imprisonment shall terminate.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

If before the expiry of the term of imprisonment three fourth of the fine is paid then the offender must be released within a month. If three-fourth of the fine is paid after the expiry of the month and the offender is still imprisoned then the offender must be immediately released. If half of the fine is paid before the expiry of two months then the offender must be discharged as soon as two months are completed. If half of the fine is paid or charged at the time of expiration of those two months or at any later time while the offender is still imprisoned then the offender must be immediately discharged.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 70 - Fine leviable within six years, or during imprisonment. Death not to discharge property from liability

The fine, or any part thereof which remains unpaid, may be levied at any time within six years after the passing of the sentence, and if, under the sentence, the offender be liable to imprisonment for a longer period than six years, then at any time previous to the expiration of that period; and the death of the offender does not discharge from the liability any property which would, after his death, be legally liable for his debts.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The fine that remains unpaid may be charged at any time within six years after passing of the sentence and if the offender is sentenced for a longer period than six years then offender is liable to pay the fine at any time before expiration of the term. Death of the offender does not discharge him/her from the liability and any property for paying the debts will be utilized in discharging the debts.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 71 - Limit of punishment of offence made up of several offences

Where anything which is an offence is made up of parts, any of which parts is itself an offence, the offender shall not be punished with the punishment of more than one of such his offences, unless it be so expressly provided.

[Where anything is an offence falling within two or more separate definitions of any law in force for the time being by which offences are defined or punished, or where several acts, of which one or more than one would by itself or themselves constitute an offence, constitute, when combined, a different offence, the offender shall not be punished with a more severe punishment than the Court which tries him could award for any one of such offences].

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

If the offence constitutes many parts and each part of the offence is in itself an offence under various definitions of any other law for the time being in consideration then the offender shall not be punished for more than one of such offences unless it is expressly provided.

The other part of the section states that whenever the punishable offence falls within two or more definitions of any law for time being in force or where several acts constituting an offence and one or more of such acts in itself constitutes an offence but in cases when such acts are combined then constitutes a different offence, the offender shall not be punished with more severe punishment given for each of those acts constituting an offence in itself by the court that was trying the offender.

Eg. Murder is a punishable offence and if A bought an illegal weapon to murder B then buying of an illegal weapon is in itself one of the punishable act that constitutes the offence of murder.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 72 - Punishment of person guilty of one of several offences, the judgment stating that it is doubtful of which

In all cases in which judgment is given that a person is guilty of one of several offences specified in the judgment, but that it is doubtful of which of these offences he is guilty, the offender shall be punished for the offence for which the lowest punishment is provided if the same punishment is not provided for all.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

If in a judgment it is stated that the offender is guilty of one of the several offences specified and it is not clear that the offender is guilty of which one. Then in such cases the offender will be punished with the offence for which the lowest possible punishment is provided.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 73 - Solitary confinement

Whenever any person is convicted of an offence for which under this Code the Court has power to sentence him to rigorous imprisonment, the Court may, by its sentence, order that the offender shall be kept in solitary confinement for any portion or portions of the imprisonment to which he is sentenced, not exceeding three months in the whole, according to the following scale, that is to say—

-a time not exceeding one month if the term of imprisonment shall not exceed six months:

-a time not exceeding two months if the term of imprisonment shall exceed six months and [shall not exceed one] year:

-a time not exceeding three months if the term of imprisonment shall exceed one year.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whenever the person is imprisoned for an offence and the court under IPC is empowered to sentence the offender to rigorous imprisonment then the court in its judgment may pronounce that the offender should be kept in solitary confinement for any part or parts of the original punishment awarded but the sentence of solitary confinement must not exceed beyond three months in the whole (punishment for the offence + Solitary confinement) which means

  • That the solitary confinement must not exceed for more than one month if the term of imprisonment does not exceed beyond six months.
  • That the solitary confinement must not exceed beyond two months if the imprisonment does not exceed beyond six months and is less than a year.
  • That the solitary confinement shall not exceed beyond three months if the term of imprisonment is more than a year.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 74 - Limit of solitary confinement

In executing a sentence of solitary confinement, such confinement shall in no case exceed fourteen days at a time, with intervals between the periods of solitary confinement of not less duration than such periods; and when the imprisonment awarded shall exceed three months, the solitary confinement shall not exceed seven days in any one month of the whole Imprisonment awarded, with intervals between the periods of solitary confinement of not less duration than such periods.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

In providing a ruling of solitary confinement it should not exceed beyond fourteen days at a time while intervals between the periods of solitary confinement should not be less than the duration of solitary confinement itself and when the imprisonment awarded shall exceed three months the solitary confinement shall not exceed seven days in any one month of the whole imprisonment with intervals between the periods of solitary confinement for not less than the duration of solitary confinement.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 75 - Enhanced punishment for certain offences under Chapter XII or Chapter XVII after previous conviction.

Whoever, having been convicted,-

(a) by a Court in [India], of an offence punishable under Chapter XII or Chapter XVII of this Code with imprisonment of either description for a term of three years or upwards, shall be guilty of any offence punishable under either of those Chapters with like imprisonment for the like term, shall be subject for every such subsequent offence to [imprisonment for life] or to imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

A person previously convicted under Chapter XII or Chapter XVII of this code with imprisonment up to three years or more will be guilty of any offence punishable under either of those chapters with the same term of imprisonment as mentioned in the section and for any subsequent offence shall be imprisoned for life or imprisonment for the term that might extend up to ten years.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 76 - Act done by a person bound, or by mistake of fact believing himself bound, by law

Nothing is an offence which is done by a person who is, or who by reason of a mistake of fact and not by reason of a mistake of law in good faith believes himself to be, bound by law to do it.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Nothing is an offence which is done by a person who is, or who by reason of a mistake of fact and not by reason of a mistake of law in good faith believes himself to be, bound by law to do it.This section explains about nothing will be an offence when a person does something in good faith and believes himself to be bound by law to do it, the reason must be mistake of fact and not mistake of law (mistake of law is no excuse, mistake of fact is).

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 77 - Act of Judge when acting judicially

Nothing is an offence which is done by a Judge when acting judicially in the exercise of any power which is, or which in good faith he believes to be, given to him by law.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means nothing will be an offence when a Judge does something Judicially with the powers vested in him by the law or which he thinks is in good faith.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 78 - Act done pursuant to the judgement or order of Court

Nothing which is done in pursuance of, or which is warranted by the judgment or order of, a Court of Justice, if done whilst such judgment or order remains in force, is an offence, notwithstanding the Court may have had no jurisdiction to pass such judgment or order, provided the person doing the act in good faith believes that the Court had such jurisdiction.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if an order or judgement is passed by the court of law, then anything if done which violates the order/judgement of the court will be an offence under this code. Even if a person does an act beliveing it to be outside the jurisdiction of the court of justice that act could be considerd an offence even if it's outside the jurisdiction of the court.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 79 - Act done by a person justified, or by mistake of fact believing himself, justified, by law.

Nothing is an offence which is done by any person who is justified by law, or who by reason of a mistake of fact and not by reason of a mistake of law in good faith, believes himself to be justified by law, in doing it.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means that if a person does something in good faith believing him to be justified by law in doing so, under the mistake of fact and not mistake of law, it won't be an offence.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 80 - Accident in doing a lawful act

Nothing is an offence which is done by accident or misfortune, and without any criminal intention or knowledge in the doing of a lawful act in a lawful manner by lawful means and with proper care and caution.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means it's no offence if a person doing an act with proper care and caution an in good faith without any criminal intent and someone get's hurt or accident happens, he can take exception of this section. For eg, two men playing kushti with proper care & caution without any ill intent and then if one of them sccums injury during that which kills him other person won't be liable.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 81 - Act likely to cause harm, but done without criminal intent, and to prevent other harm

Nothing is an offence merely by reason of its being done with the knowledge that it is likely to cause harm, if it be done without any criminal intention to cause harm, and in good faith for the purpose of preventing or avoiding other harm to person or property.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if a person commits an act which is likely to cause harm to another but it has to be done in order to prevent further harm to life or property. For eg A a doctor treating on a pregnant lady giving birth to a baby who'll likely not survive the operation, but if A tries to save a child mother will die and thier are chance still that child will possible not survive, but if he saves the mother child will definately die, so A saves the mother child dies, here A has comitted no offence since child was likely to die and mother had full chances of survival. A is not guilty.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 82 - Act of a child under seven years of age

Nothing is an offence which is done by a child under seven years of age.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if a child under 7 years of age does any act, it won't be an offence. For eg a child of 6 years age while playing with his father's revolver thinking it of as his toy pulls the trigger and shot neighbour child, this act won't be an offence for child, as he had no idea of the nature of act.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 83 - Act of a child above seven and under twelve of immature understanding

Nothing is an offence which is done by a child above seven years of age and under twelve, who has not attained sufficient maturity of understanding to judge of the nature and consequences of his conduct on that occasion.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means that the child between 7-12 years of age can commit no offence if he doesn't know the nature and consequence of his act. For eg chotu and motu were playing with other kids both kids are of 10 years age chotu instead of ball threw a stone a motu, he got injured since chotu didn't knew the nature and consequence of his act he won't be liable.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 84 - Act of a person of unsound mind

Nothing is an offence which is done by a person who, at the time of doing it, by reason of unsoundness of mind, is incapable of knowing the nature of the act, or that he is doing what is either wrong or contrary to law.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if an act is done by a person of unsound mind, who is not able to understand the nature and consequence of his act will not be liable for the offence. For eg Bunty is 30 year male of unsound mind who injured Shayam with a knife, he won't be liable under this code due to his reason being insane.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 85 - Act of a person incapable of judgement by reason of intoxication caused against his will.

Nothing is an offence which is done by a person who, at the time of doing it, is, by reason of intoxication, incapable of knowing the nature of the act, or that he is doing what is either wrong, or contrary to law: provided that the thing which intoxicated him was administered to him without his knowledge or against his will.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if an act is committed by a person who at the time of comitting the act was under the influeance of intoxication and was unable to know the nature of act, also that the intoxication must be against his will or without his knowledge. For eg swathi went to part with her friends there her friends forcefully made her drink alchol, so much that she wasn't able to say anything properly in that state Meena started fighting with her, swathi pushed meena down stairs and she died, since she was a lot intoxicated and it was not voluntary drinking she'll be exempted from the said offence.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 86 - Offence requiring a particular intent or knowledge committed by one who is intoxicated.

In cases where an act done is not an offence unless done with a particular knowledge or intent, a person who does the act in a state of intoxication shall be liable to be dealt with as if he had the same knowledge as he would have had if he had not been intoxicated, unless the thing which intoxicated him was administered to him without his knowledge or against his will.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if an act committed by a person under the influeance intoxication when he's having an intent to that act he shall be held liable under this section, it would be presumed that the act he had done while being intoxicated he would also have done without being intoxicated, unless the thing which intoxicated him was given to him without his knowledge or will.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 87 - Act not intended and not known to be likely to cause death or grievous hurt, done by consent

Nothing which is not intended to cause death, or grievous hurt, and which is not known by the doer to be likely to cause death or grievous hurt, is an offence by reason of any harm which it may cause, or be intended by the doer to cause, to any person, above eighteen years of age, who has given consent, whether express or implied, to suffer that harm; or by reason of any harm which it may be known by the doer to be likely to cause to any such person who has consented to take the risk of that harm

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means that if an act done which is not intended to cause death or grevious hurt, which is not intended by one who does that act is not an offence for whatever harm it causes to other person, or if persons above 18 years of age have consented that harm can be caused then the one who does the act will not be liable. as they had consented (express, implied). For eg A & B decided to play boxing if anyone of them gets serious hurt during the act other cannot be held liable for the injury caused.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 88 - Act not intended to cause death, done by consent in good faith for person's benefit

Nothing, which is not intented to cause death, is an offence by reason of any harm which it may cause, or be intended by the doer to cause, or be known by the doer to be likely to cause, to any person for whose benefit it is done in good faith, and who has given a consent, whether express or implied to suffer that harm, or to take the risk of that harm.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if a person does an act which is not intended to cause death, done in good faith and also with the consent of other person the said person doing the act will not be liable. For eg A, a surgeon, knowing that a particular operation is likely to cause the death of Z, who suffers under the painful complaint, but not intending to cause Z's death, and intending, in good faith, Z's benefit, performs that operation on Z, with Z's consent. A has committed no offence.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 89 - Act done in good faith for benefit of child or insane person, by or by consent of guardian.

Nothing which is done in good faith for the benefit of a person under twelve years of age, or of unsound mind, by or by consent, either express or implied, of the guardian or other person having lawful charge of that person, is an offence by reason of any harm which it may cause, or be intended by the doer to cause or be known by the doer to be likely to cause to that person:                      

Provisos.
First.-That this exception shall not extend to the intentional causing of death, or to the attempting to cause death;
 Secondly.-That this exception shall not extend to the doing of anything which the person doing it knows to be likely to cause death, for any purpose other than the preventing of death or grievous hurt, or the curing of any grievous disease or infirmity;
 Thirdly.-That this exception shall not extend to the
 voluntary causing of grievous hurt, or to the attempting to cause grievous hurt, unless it be for the purpose of preventing death or grievous hurt, or the curing of any grievous disease or infirmity;
Fourthly.-That this exception shall not extend to the abetment of any offence, to the committing of which offence it would not extend. 

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means any act which is done by a person in good faith for benefit of a child (under 12 year) or an insane with the consent of his guardian (lawful incharge) will not be an offence under this section.

Proviso

First : this section shall not be applied to cases where their is intentional death or an attempt of causing death.

Second : this exception shall not extend to the part where it might cause death or grevious death, but can be applied to prevent grevious hurt or curing of any grevious disease.  

Third : This exception shall not extend to voluntary causing of grevious hurt, or attempt to cause grevious hurt, but can be appilied where it's been done in order to prevent grevious hurt or in order to cure any grevious disease.

Fourth : This exception shall not extend to abetting of any offence.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 90 - Consent known to be given under fear or misconception

A consent is not such a consent as is intended by any section of thisCode, if the consent is given by a person under fear of injury, or under a misconception of fact, and if the person doing the act knows, or has reason to believe, that the consent was given in consequence of such fear or misconception; or
Consent of insane person.-if the consent is given by a person who, from unsoundness of mind, or intoxication, is unable to understand the nature and consequence of that to which he gives his consent; or
Consent of child.-unless the contrary appears from the context, if the consent is given by a person who is under twelve years of age.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means a consent taken will not be considers as a consent under this code if it's taken under misrepresentation or under circumstances of fear, Consent of insane person means a person who is of unsound mind or is intoxicated his consent will not be considerd as a consent under this code. Consent of child means a consent given by child under the age of 12 will not be considerd as consent under this code.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 91 - Exclusion of acts which are offences independently of harm cause.

The exceptions in sections 87, 88 and 89 do not extend to acts which are offences independently of any harm which they may cause, or be intended to cause, or be known to be likely to cause, to the person giving the consent, or on whose behalf the consent is given.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This sections means exceptions which are given under section 87, 88, 89 does not cover the offences which independently cause harm or intended to cause harm or is likely to cause harm to the person who gives consent or on behalf of whom consent is given.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 92 - Act done in good faith for benefit of a person without consent

Nothing is an offence by reason of any harm which it may causes to a person for whose benefit it is done in good faith, even without that person's consent, if the circumstances are such that it is impossible for that person to signify consent, or if that person is incapable of giving consent, and has no guardian or other person in lawful charge of him from whom it is possible to obtain consent in time for the thing to be done with benefit              Provisos.-First.-That this exception shall not extend to the intentional causing of death or the attempting to cause death; 
Secondly.-That this exception shall not extend to the doing of anything which the person doing it knows to be likely to cause death, for any purpose other than the preventing of death or grievous hurt, or the curing of any grievous disease or infirmity;
Thirdly.-That this exception shall not extend to the
voluntary causing of hurt, or to the attempting to cause hurt, for any purpose other than the preventing of death or hurt;
Fourthly.-That this exception shall not extend to the abetment of any offence, to the committing of which offence it would not extend.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if a person does an act for someone else's benefit without taking that person's consent for the reason that the person is unable to give consent, or if no gurdain or lawful incharge of that person is available to give consent, then the act committed by person in good faith will not be an offence. For eg, A is caught in fire with his child unable to find no other way A threw his child away from fire, child got hurt by hitting hard on head, but is alive which saved the child's life so it wont be an offence.

Proviso

First, this section doesn't extend to intentionally causig death or intentionally causing grevious hurt.

Second, This exception shall not extend to the point where the act comitting is likely to cause death or grevious death, unless it's done to prevent death or grevious hurt, or for curing grevious disease.

Third, this section shall not extend to the point were causing hurt is voluntary for any purpose other then preventing death or hurt.

Fourth, this exception shall not extend to abetment of any offence.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 93 - Communication made in good faith

No communication made in good faith is an offence by reason of any harm to the person to whom it is made, if it is made for the benefit of that person

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if a communication which is made in good faith causes harm to the one to whom it's made it will not be an offence. For eg A is a doctor who told patient B that he's suffering from cancer 3rd stage, after hearing this B comitted suicude, A as a doctor told B in good faith about his condition, it's not his fault that he came into shock and comitted suicide

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 94 - Act to which a person is compelled by threats

Except murder, and offences against the State punishable with death, nothing is an offence which is done by a person who is compelled to do it by threats, which, at the time of doing it, reasonnably cause the apprehension that instant death to that person will otherwise be the consequence: Provided the person doing the act did not of his own accord, or from a reasonable apprehension of harm to himself short of instant death, place himself in the situation by which he became subject to such constraint.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means any act which is comitted with the fear of getting oneself killed will not be an offence (except murder and offences against state).   [Important point: Fear of instant death]

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 95 - Act causing slight harm

Nothing is an offence by reason that it causes, or that it is intended to cause, or that it is known to be likely to cause, any harm, if that harm is so slight that no person of ordinary sense and temper would complain of such harm

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means any act which is even intended or unintended to cause slight harm which a person of normal state of mind would not complain about will not be constituted as an offence. For eg A slight pat on ur friend's back might cause a slight harm for a second or two but no ordinary person will complain about it.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 96 - Things done in private defence

Nothing is an offence which is done in the exercise of the right of private defence.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means the act done in order to prevent oneself from harm will not be an offence (right to private defence is applicable only when the act done is equivalent to the injury you would have got if you didin't exercised your right to private defence), for eg. A is trying to stab B with a knife suddenly B picked a rod lying nearby him and threw it at A making him bleed, he can exercise his right to private defence.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 97 - Right of private defence of the body and of property

Every person has a right, subject to the restrictions contained in section 99, to defend-                      

 First.-- His own body, and the body of any other person, against any offence affecting the human body;
Secondly.-- The property, whether movable or immovable, of himself or of any other person, against any act which is an offence falling under the defintion of theft, robbery, mischief or criminal trespass, or which is an attempt to commit theft, robbery, mischief or criminal trespass.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means every person has the right to protect his body and body of another person against offences against human body, or if one's property (moveable or immovable) or another person is being falling under the offence  like theft, robbery, mischief or criminal trespass or an attempt of the same.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 98 - Right of private defence against the act of a person of unsound mind, etc

When an act which would otherwise be a certain offence, is not that offence, by reason of the youth, the want of maturity of understanding, the unsoundness of mind or the intoxication of the person doing that act, or by reason of any misconception on the part of that person, every person has the same right of private defence against that act which he would have if the act were that  offence.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

 This section means if an act done by a person of unsound mind or under the influeance of intoxication which otherwise would have been an offence if done by a sane person the act is no offence but the person against whom act is being done he has the right to private defence as if would have against a sane person. For eg. Mrs A was being teased by a man at party because he was under the influeance of intoxication, she still has right of private defence agaisnt her body, property.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 99 - Acts against which there is no right of private defence

There is no right of private defence against an act which does not reasonably cause the apprehension of death or of grievous hurt, if done, or attempted to be done, by a public servant acting in good
faith under colour of his office, though that act may not be strictly justifiable by law.

There is no right of private defence against an act which does not reasonably cause the apprehension of death or of grievous hurt, if done, or attempted to be done, by the direction of a public servant acting in good faith under colour of his office though that direction may not be strictly justifiable by law. There is no right of private defence in cases in which there is time to have recourse to protection of the public authorities.

Extent to which the right may be exercised.--The right of private defence in no case extends to the inflicting of more harm than it is necessary to inflict for the purpose of defence.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

First part of this section means a person has no right of private defence against an act which does not cause instant fear of death or grevious hurt if done by a public servent who is acting in good faith and under the name of his office not his personal power, even if that act might not be strictly justifiable by law, but a person is not deprieved his right of private defence against an act of public servant unless the point where he doesn't know the person doing act is public servant. Second part of this section means a person has no right of private defence against an act which does not cause instant fear of death or grevious hurt if done by the direction of a public servent who is acting in good faith and under the name of his office not his personal power, even if that direction or act might not be strictly justifiable by law, but a person is not deprieved his right of private defence against the direction of a public servant unless the point where he doesn't know the person doing act is doing by such direction or unless such person states such authority under which he's acting or produces such authority or shows in writing.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 100 - When the right of private defence of the body extends to causing death

The right of private defence of the body extends, under the restrictions mentioned in the last preceding section, to the voluntary causing of death or of any other harm to the assailant, if
the offence which occasions the exercise of the right be of any of the descriptions hereinafter enumerated, namely:-

First.-Such an assault as may reasonably cause the
apprehension that death will otherwise be the consequence of such assault;

Secondly.-Such an assault as may reasonably cause the apprehension that grievous hurt will otherwise be the consequence of such assault;

Thirdly.-An assault with the intention of committing rape;

Fourthly.-An assault with the intention of gratifying unnatural lust;

Fifthly.-An assault with the intention of kidnapping or abducting;

Sixthly.-An assault with the intention of wrongfully
confining a person, under circumstances which may reasonably cause him to apprehend that he will be unable to have recourse to the public authorities for his release.                                                    

[Seventhly. - An act of throwing or administering acid or an attempt to throw or administer acid which may reasonably cause the apprehension that grievous hurt will otherwise be the consequence of such act.]

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means in few of the circumstances right to private defence can extend up to causing death or causing harm against the person who is attacking, First - such a situation wherein if act not done by the person (victim) death will surely happen (by assailant). Secondly - such a situation wherein if an act not done by the person (victim) grevious hurt will surely happen (by assailant). Thirdly - such a situation were assailant intention is of committing rape. Fourthly - such a situation where assailant intention is of satisfying himself with unnatural lust. Fifthly - such a situation where assailant intention is of abducting or kidnapping. Sixthly - such a situation where the assailant intention is to wrongfully confine a person and such person has reason to belive that it would not be possible to contact public authorities about his situation. Seventhly - (it was added by amendment of 2013) such a situation where the act of throwing acid or administering acid or an attempt of same by assailant which may reasonably cause grevious hurt or even apprehension of the same (to victim).

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 101 - When such right extends to causing any harm other than death

If the offence be not of any of the descriptions enumerated in the last preceding section, the right of private defence of the body does not extend to the voluntary causing of death to the assailant, but does extend, under the restrictions mentioned in section 99, to the voluntary causing to the assailant of any harm other than death.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means except for the cirumstances mentioned under the previous section (100) private defence can extend upto causing any harm other than death, but can extend upto the conditions mentioned under section 99.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 102 - Commencement and continuance of the right of private defence of the body.

The right of private defence of the body commences as soon as a reasonable apprehension of danger to the body arises from an attempt or threat to commit the offence though the offence may not have been committed; and it continues as long as such apprehension of danger to the body continues.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means private defence of body starts at the point where fear or apprehension to body starts and it lasts till the point where apprehension or fear continues.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 103 - When the right of private defence of property extends to causing death.

The right of private defence of property extends,
under the restrictions mentioned in section 99, to the voluntary causing of death or of any other harm to the wrong-doer, if the offence, the committing of which, or the attempting to commit which, occasions the exercise of the right, be an offence of any of the descriptions hereinafter enumerated, namely:-
First.-Robbery;
Secondly.-House-breaking by night;
Thirdly.-Mischief by fire committed on any building, tent or vessel, which building, tent or vessel is used as a human dwelling, or as a place for the custody of property;
Fourthly.-Theft, mischief, or house-trespass, under such circumstances as may reasonably cause apprehension that death or grievous hurt will be the consequence, if such right of private defence is not exercised.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means right of private defnece of property extends upto death or harm of the assailants where the offence are of such types as defined herein this section: First - if assailant is trying to commit Robbery at your property. Secodly - if assailant tries to do break-in at your house by night.  Thirdly - if the assaislant is trying to set on fire by any explosive substance on any building, tent or vessel which is a person's house or is used as a place to worship.  Fourthly - if assailant is trying theft, mischief (setting fire), or house trespass which reasonably causes the apprehension or fear of life if private defence is not exercised. [Fifthly clause is added by three states namely Karnataka, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh for the protection of government property]

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 104 - When such right to causing any harm other than death

If the offence, the committing of which, or the attempting to commit which occasions the exercise of the right of private defence, be theft, mischief, or criminal trespass, not of any of the descriptions enumerated in the last preceding section, that right does not extend to the voluntary causing of death, but does extend, subject to the restrictions mentioned in section 99, to the voluntary causing to the wrong-doer of any harm other than death.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means the offence or attempt to commit the offence or the commiting of the said offence which raise the right to private defence be it theft mischief or criminal trespass it does not extend the right to cause death of assailent but that does extend to cause harm as per mentioned in section 99.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 105 - Commencement and continuance of the right of private defence of property

The right of private defence of property commences when a reasonable apprehension of danger to the property commences.
The right of private defence of property against theft continues till the offender has effected his retreat with the property or either the assistance of the public authorities is obtained, or the property has been recovered.
The right of private defence of property against robbery continues as long as the offender causes or attempts to cause to anyperson death or hurt or wrongful restraint or as long as the fear of instant death or of instant hurt or of instant personal restraint continues.
The right of private defence of property against criminal trespass or mischief continues as long as the offender continues in the commission of criminal trespass or mischief.
The right of private defence of property against house-breaking by night continues as long as the house-trespass which has been begun by such house-breaking continues.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means the right of private defence starts when there is a reasonable apprehension of property arises, the right of private defence of property agaisnst theft continues till the offender has retreated/ returned, or fall back from the property or either the person has obtained the assistance of public authorities or if the property is recovered, the right of private defence against robbery continues till the offender cause or attempts to cause harm to a person's life or wrongful restraint simply means uptil the point till there is fear of getting hurt or killed, the right of private defence against criminal trespass or mischief (setting fire with the help of a subsatance) continues till the point there is criminal trespass or mischief is happening, the right of private defence against property in case of house-breaking by night exists uptill the point till the person who has broke into the house or sttempted to break into the house has left the property simply means until the point til;l the act continues.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 106 - Right of private defence against deadly assault when there is risk of harm to innocent person.

If in the exercise of the right of private defence against an assault which reasonably causes the apprehension of death, the defender be so situated that he cannot effectually exercise that right without risk of harm to an innocent person, his right of private defence extends to the running of that risk.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if while practicing one's right to private defence there is a slight chance that innocents might also get hurt, in such situations person can exercise his right to private defence upto that risk, means he can take that risk. For eg. If a politician is on road and mob suddenly starts throwing stones at him and running to beat him he can exercise his right to private defence even if in the mob are few innocent kids and those few who might just can get caught in the crossfire.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 107 - Abetment of a thing

A person abets the doing of a thing, who:

First.-Instigates any person to do that thing; or

Secondly.-Engages with one or more other person or persons in any conspiracy for the doing of that thing, if an act or illegal omission takes place in pursuance of that conspiracy, and in order to the doing of that thing; or

Thirdly.-Intentionally aids, by any act or illegal omission, the doing of that thing.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

  • Abetment is to prompt any person to do something or
  • indulge with one or more persons in any conspiracy for doing something and that act which took place or failure to act  in pursuance of the conspiracy that took place.
  • Intentionally helping by doing the   act or omission (failure to act) due to which the offence occurred.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 108 - Abettor

A person abets an offence, who abets either the commission of an offence, or the commission of an act which would be an offence, if committed by a person capable by law of committing an offence with the same intention or knowledge as that of the abettor.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Abettor means a person who abets in Commission of an offence or an act which would be an offence if committed with the same intention and knowledge by the person capable by law. Though the person might have not known about the conspiracy but still any act performed by the person that lead to conspiracy would hold him liable under the given section.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 108A - Abetment in India of offences outside India.

A person abets an offence within the meaning of this Code who, in [India], abets the commission of any act without and beyond [India] which would constitute an offence if committed in [India].

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Any person in India if instigates another person to commit an act whether in India or outside, will be considered abettor and the act would be contemplated as abetment as if it was committed in India.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 109 - Punishment of abetment if the act abetted is committed in consequence and where no express provision is made for its punishment

Whoever abets any offence shall, if the act abetted is committed in consequence of the abetment, and no express provision is made by this Code for the punishment of such abetment, be punished with the punishment provided for the offence.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

If there is no express provision specifying the punishment for abetment then the abettor will be given punishment provided for the offence itself.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 110 - Punishment of abetment if person abetted does act with different intention from that of abettor.

Whoever abets the commission of an offence shall, if the person abetted does the act with a different intention or knowledge from that of the abettor, be punished with the punishment provided for the offence which would have been committed if the act had been done with the intention or knowledge of the abettor and with no other.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

If a person abets in the commission of an offence without the intention or knowledge of doing so then the person will be punished assuming as if the offence was committed with an intention and knowledge of committing the act of abetment. The person will be punished assuming as if he/she had the intention and knowledge both to commit the act.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 111 - Liability of abettor when one act abetted and different act done

When an Act is abetted and a different act is done, the abettor is liable for the act done, in the same manner and to the same extent as if he had directly abetted it. Provided that the act done was a probable consequence of the abetment, and was committed under the influence of the instigation, or with the aid or in pursuance of the conspiracy which constituted the abetment

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whenever the act is abetted but the actual act did not occur not as the consequence of the person’s abetment then the abettor will be liable for the act done in the same manner and to the same extent as if the act was the direct consequence of his/her instigation.

Provided that the act done must be the probable (likelihood)  consequence committed under the influence of the instigation or with the aid or as a result of conspiracy that constituted the abetment.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 112 - Abettor when liable to cumulative punishment for act abetted and for act done

If the act for which the abettor is liable under the last preceding section is committed in addition to the act abetted, and constitute a distinct offence, the abettor is liable to punishment for each of the offences.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The abettor who committed an offence under the last preceding section (Section 111) has committed an additional offence related to conspiracy that in itself constitutes a different offence then the abettor is liable to be punished for each of the offences.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 113 - Liability of abettor for an effect caused by the act abetted different from that intended by the abettor.

When an act is abetted with the intention on the part of the abettor of causing a particular effect, and an act for which the abettor is liable in consequence of the abetment, causes a different effect from that intended by the abettor, the abettor is liable for the effect caused, in the same manner and to the same extent as if he had abetted the act with the intention of causing that effect, provided he knew that the act abetted was likely to cause that effect.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

An intention to cause effect as a consequence of the abetment would hold the abettor liable for the effect caused in the same manner and to the same extent as if he/she had abetted the act with the intention of causing that effect even though the effect caused was different than that which was intended.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 114 - Abettor present when offence is committed.

Whenever any person who if absent would be liable to be punished as an abettor, is present when the act or offence for which he would be punishable in consequence of the abetment is committed, he shall be deemed to have committed such act or offence.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whenever the abettor who if absent will be punished as a consequence of the abetment, is present at the time when the act or offence was committed then the abettor shall be considered to have committed such an act or offence.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 115 - Abetment of offence punishable with death or imprisonment for life-if offence is not committed.

Whoever abets the commission of an offence punishable with death or [imprisonment for life], shall, if that offence be not committed in consequence of the abetment, and no express provision is made by this Code for the punishment of such abetment, be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine if act causing harm be done in consequence.

If act causing harm be done in consequence :if any act for which the abettor is liable in consequence of the abetment, and which causes hurt to any person, is done, the abettor shall be liable to imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to fourteen years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Any person who abets an offence punishable with imprisonment for life or death shall be punished with imprisonment for a term that may extend to seven years even though the offence committed was not the result of the abetment or shall also be liable to pay fine when the act was direct consequence of the abetment then the abettor shall be liable to imprisonment for a term which may extend to fourteen years, and shall also be liable to pay fine.

 

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 116 - Abetment of offence punishable with imprisonment if offence be not committed.

Whoever abets an offence punishable with imprisonment shall, if that offence be not committed in consequence of the abetment, and no express provision is made by this Code for the punishment of such abetment, be punished with imprisonment of any description provided for that offence for a term which may extend to one-fourth part of the longest term provided for that offence; or with such fine as is provided for that offence, or with both;

If abettor or person abetted be a public servant whose duty it is to prevent offence : if the abettor or the person abetted is a public servant, whose duty it is to prevent the commission of such offence, the abettor shall be punished with imprisonment of any description provided for that offence, for a term which may extend to one-half of the longest term provided for that offence, or with such fine as is provided for the offence, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

  1. If an offence punishable with imprisonment was not committed as a consequence of the abetment and
  2. No express provision is provided in the code regarding the punishment for such abetment then
  3. The offender shall be punished with imprisonment as provided with the offence itself or
    • With such term of imprisonment that may extend up to one-fourth part of the longest term of imprisonment provided for the offence or
    • With such fine provided with the offence or
    • With fine and imprisonment both provided for the offence.

Now the section further classifies between the normal offenders and the public servant. If the offence of abetment is committed by the public servant (abettor) then

  • He/she shall be imprisoned for a term which may extend to one-half of the longest term provided for the offence.
  • Or with such fine as provided with the offence
  • Or with fine and imprisonment both.

 

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 117 - Abetting commission of offence by the public or by more than ten persons.

Whoever abets the commission of an offence by the public generally or by any number or class of persons exceeding ten, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

If public or more than ten persons abets the commission of an offence then they will be imprisoned for a term that may extend up to three years or with fine or with fine and imprisonment both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 118 - Concealing design to commit offence punishable with death or imprisonment for life.

Whoever intending to facilitate or knowing it to be likely that he will thereby facilitate the commission of an offence punishable with death or [imprisonment for life], voluntarily conceals, by any act or illegal omission, the existence of a design to commit such offence or makes any representation which he knows to be false respecting such design, if offence be committed-if offence be not committed.

If offence be committed-if offence be not committed : If that offence be committed, be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, or, if the offence of not committed, with imprisonment of either description, for a term which may extend to three years; and in either case shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

  • Whoever intending to make the occurrence of the offence possible knowing that it will likely(possibly) lead to the occurrence of the offence that is punishable with either death or imprisonment for life.
  • Whoever voluntarily hides the existence of a plan for committing the offence by doing an act or by failure to act or
  • Makes false representation to hide the plan for committing the offence will be punished with imprisonment that might extend up to seven years with fine if the offence for which the offender abetted is committed and if the offence is not committed then the imprisonment might extend up to three years plus fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 119 - Public servant concealing design to commit offence which it is his duty to prevent.

Whoever, being a public servant intending to facilitate or knowing it to be likely that he will thereby facilitate the commission of an offence which it is his duty as such public servant to prevent, voluntarily conceals, by any act or illegal omission, the existence of a design to commit such offence, or makes any representation which he knows to be false respecting such design if offence be committed.

If offence be committed : if the offence be committed, be punished with imprisonment of any description provided for the offence, for a term which may extend to one-half of the longest term of such imprisonment, or with such fine as is provided for that offence, or with both.

If offence be punishable with death, etc : If the offence be punishable with death or [imprisonment for life], with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years.

If offence be not committed : If the offence be not committed, shall be punished with imprisonment of any description provided for the offence for a term which may extend to one-fourth part of the longest term of such imprisonment or with such fine as is provided for the offence, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

  • If a public servant with an intention to cause or knowing that it will likely(probably) cause the commission of an offence which it is his duty as a public servant to prevent.
  • If voluntarily hides the existence of plan required to commit the offence
  • If makes false representation knowing it to be false to protect the plan if the offence is going to be committed.

If the offence be committed:  If the offence will be committed then the offender will be punished with an imprisonment provided for the offence that might extend up to one-half of the longest term of imprisonment provided for the offence or with fine or with imprisonment and fine both.

If offence be punishable with death, etc :  If the punishment provided for offence is life imprisonment or death then the imprisonment might extend up to ten years.

If offence be not committed : If the offence did not occur then the offender will be imprisoned for a term which might extend up to one- fourth part of the longest term of imprisonment provided for the offence or with fine or with both fine and imprisonment.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 120 - Concealing design to commit offence punishable with imprisonment.

Whoever, intending to facilitate or knowing it to be likely that he will thereby facilitate the commission of an offence punishable with imprisonment, voluntarily conceals, by any act or illegal omission, the existence of a design to commit such offence, or makes any representation which he knows to be false respecting such design, if offence be committed-if offence be not committed.

If offence be committed-if offence be not committed : If the offence be committed, be punished with imprisonment of the description provided for the offence, for a term which may extend to one-fourth, and, if the offence be not committed, to one-eight, of the longest term of such imprisonment, or with such fine as is provided for the offence, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

  • Whoever with an intention to cause or knowing that it will likely cause the commission of an offence that is punishable with imprisonment
  • Voluntarily conceals the plan for executing the act by doing an act or failing to act
  • Makes false representation knowing it to be false for success of the plan to commit the offence that may or may not occur.

If offence be committed-if offence be not committed :  If the offence is committed then the offender will be punished with the term of  imprisonment described for the offence itself  or for the term of imprisonment that might extend up to one- fourth of the imprisonment that can be provided as punishment for the offence.

If the offence is not committed then then the imprisonment will be awarded up to one – eighth of the longest term of the imprisonment that can be awarded for the offence or with fine or with both imprisonment and fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 120A - Definition of criminal conspiracy

When two or more persons agree to do, or cause to be done,-

(1) an illegal act, or

(2) an act which is not illegal by illegal means, such an agreement is designated a criminal conspiracy:

Provided that no agreement except an agreement to commit an offence shall amount to a criminal conspiracy unless some act besides the agreement is done by one or more parties to such agreement in pursuance thereof.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

When two or more persons enter into an agreement or causes :

(1)  an illegal act to be done or

(2) an act which is not illegal but conducted by illegal means

then such an offence will be termed as criminal conspiracy.

Provided that only the agreement to commit the act of criminal conspiracy will amount to criminal conspiracy unless some act beside the agreement is done by one or more parties to such agreement in regard with the conspiracy.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 120B - Punishment of criminal conspiracy

1) Whoever is a party to a criminal conspiracy to commit an offence punishable with death, [imprisonment for life] or rigorous imprisonment for a term of two years or upwards, shall, where no express provision is made in this Code for the punishment of such a conspiracy, be punished in the same manner as if he had abetted such offence.

2) Whoever is a party to a criminal conspiracy other than a criminal conspiracy to commit an offence punishable as aforesaid shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term not exceeding six months, or with fine or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

1) Whoever is a party to the criminal conspiracy for the offence punishable with death, imprisonment for life or rigorous imprisonment for a term of two years or more will be punished in the same manner as if he/she had abetted such offence in case there is no express provision provided.

2) Whoever is a party to a criminal conspiracy other than the offence punishable with aforementioned punishment then he/she will be punished will imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months or with fine or with fine and imprisonment both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 121 - Waging, or attempting to wage war, or abetting waging of war, against the Government of India.

Whoever wages war against the [Government of India], or attempts to wage such war, or abets the waging of such war, shall be punished with death, or [imprisonment for life] [and shall also be liable to fine].

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whoever wages war against the Government of India or attempts to wage war or abets the waging of such war then such a person will be punished with death or imprisonment for life and shall also be liable to pay fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 121A - Conspiracy to commit offences punishable by section 121.

Whoever within or without [India] conspires to commit any of the offences punishable by section 121, or conspires to overawe, by means of criminal force or the show of criminal force, [the Central Government or any State Government , shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], or with imprisonment of either description which may extend to ten years, [and shall also be liable to fine].

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whoever whether within or outside of India enter into a conspiracy to commits the offence falling under section 121 or conspires to intimidate the State Government or Central Government by use of criminal force or the show of criminal force shall be punished with imprisonment for life or imprisonment with the term that may extend up to ten year and shall also be liable to pay fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 122 - Collecting arms, etc., with intention of waging war against the Government of India.

Whoever collects men, arms or ammunition or otherwise prepares to wage war with the intention of either waging or being prepared to wage war against the [Government of India],shall be punished with [imprisonment for life] or imprisonment of either description for a term not exceeding ten years, [and shall also be liable to fine].

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whosoever,

  •  collects men, arms or ammunition or
  • otherwise prepares to wage war with the intention of either waging war or getting prepared to wage war against the Government of India then such an offender  shall be punished with imprisonment for life or imprisonment not exceeding ten years and shall also be liable to pay fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 123 - Concealing with intent to facilitate design to wage war

Whoever, by any act, or by any illegal omission, conceals the existence of a design to wage war against the [Government of India], intending by such concealment to facilitate, or knowing it to be likely that such concealment will facilitate, the waging of such war, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whoever by doing any act or failure to act if hides the existence of a plan with an intention to  facilitate war and knowing that hiding of such facts would likely instigate war against the government of India then such a person will be punished with a imprisonment that might extend up to ten years and fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 124 - Assaulting President, Governor, etc., with intent to compel or restrain the exercise of any lawful power.

Whoever, with the intention of inducing or compelling the [President] of India, or[Governor] of any State, to exercise or refrain from exercising in any manner any of the lawful powers of such [President or[Governor], assaults or wrongfully restrains, or attempts wrongfully to restrain, or overawes, by means of criminal force or the show of criminal force, or attempts so to overawe, such [President or [Governor], shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whosoever with the intention of persuading or forcing the president of India or Governor of any State to exercise or refrain from exercising their lawful powers in any manner .The second part of the definition further explains that whosoever assaults or wrongfully restrain or intimidates or attempts to intimidate such president or governor by use or show of criminal force then the offender shall be charged with fine as well as imprisonment for a term that might extend up to seven years.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 124A - Sedition

Whoever by words, either spoken or written, or by signs, or by visible representation, or otherwise, brings or attempts to bring into hatred or contempt, or excites or attempts to excite disaffection towards, the Government established by law in [India], a shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], to which fine may be added, or with imprisonment which may extend to three years, to which fine may be added, or with fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

  • Whosoever by words either spoken or written  or
  • by signs or by visible representation or
  • otherwise causes or attempts to cause hatred or contempt or
  • rouses or attempts to rouse dissatisfaction towards the government of India shall be punished with imprisonment for life to which fine may be added or
  • shall be punished with imprisonment that might extend up to three years and to which fine may be added or with fine only

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 125 - Waging war against any Asiatic Power in alliance with the Government of India.

Whoever wages war against the Government of any Asiatic Power in alliance or at peace with the [Government of India] or attempts to wage such war, or abets the waging of such war, shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], to which fine may be added, or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, to which fine may be added, or with fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

  • Whosoever wags war or
  • attempts to wage war or
  • abets the waging of such war  against the Government that is in alliance with Government of India
  • Then such an offender shall be punished with the term of imprisonment of seven years to which fine may be added or can be charged with fine only.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 126 - Committing depredation on territories of Power at peace with the Government of India.

Whoever commits depredation, or makes preparations to commit depredation, on the territories of any Power in alliance or at peace with the [Government of India], shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine and to forfeiture of any property used or intended to be used in committing such depredation, or acquired by such depredation.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

  • Whosoever devastates or makes preparation to cause pillage on the territory of any country who is an ally as well as at peace with the Government of India then such an offender shall be punished with imprisonment for the term that might extend up to seven years and
  • such offender shall also be liable to pay fine and
  • any property acquired or intended to be utilized or utilized by the offenders for causing such pillage will be seized by the government of India.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 127 - Receiving property taken by war or depredation mentioned in sections 125 and 126.

Whoever receives any property knowing the same to have been taken in the commission of any of the offences mentioned in sections 125 and 126, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine and to forfeiture of the property so received.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whosoever receives any property knowing that the same property have been acquired in the commission of offences mentioned under section 125 and section 126 then such an offender shall be punished with imprisonment that might extend up to seven years and shall also be liable to pay fine and the property acquired will be seized by the government.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 128 - Public servant voluntarily allowing prisoner of state or war to escape.

Whoever, being a public servant and having the custody of any State prisoner or prisoner of war, voluntarily allows such prisoner to escape from any place in which such prisoner is confined, shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], or imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

When a public servant having custody of state prisoner or prisoner of war voluntarily allows such prisoner to escape then such an offender who arranged the escape will be awarded the punishment of life imprisonment or imprisonment up to ten years with fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 129 - Public servant negligently suffering such prisoner to escape

Whoever, being a public servant and having the custody of any State prisoner or prisoner of war, negligently suffers such prisoner to escape from any place of confinement in which such prisoner is confined, shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

If a public servant negligently allows state prisoner or prisoner of war to escape shall be charged with fine as well as punished with imprisonment up to three years.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 130 - Aiding escape of, rescuing or harbouring such prisoner

Whoever knowingly aids or assists any State prisoner or prisoner of war in escaping from lawful custody, or rescues or attempts to rescue any such prisoner, or harbours or conceals any such prisoner who has escaped from lawful custody, or offers or attempts to offer any resistance to the recapture of such prisoner shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

  • Whosoever knowingly aids or assists or
  • Rescues or attempts to rescue

Of any State prisoner or prisoner of war in escaping from lawful custody

  • Whosoever Harbours or conceals
  • Offers or attempts to offer any resistance to recapture

 Of any State prisoner or prisoner of war who has escaped from lawful custody .

Then such an offender shall be punished with imprisonment of life or charged with fine + imprisonment for a term which may extend up to ten years

 

 

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 131 - Abetting mutiny, or attempting to seduce a soldier, sailor or airman from his duty.

Whoever abets the committing of mutiny by an officer, soldier, [sailor or airman], in the Army, [Navy or Air Force] of the [Government of India] or attempts to seduce any such officer, soldier, [sailor or airman] from his allegiance or his duty, shall be punished with 1*[imprisonment for life], or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means a person who commits a crime with the officer working under the head of Government of India, or attempts to bring officer, soldier to comitt a crime with him thereby preventing him from his allegiance to Government of India shall be punished with imprisonment which can extend upto 10 years with fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 132 - Abetment of mutiny, if mutiny is committed in consequence thereof.

Whoever abets the committing of mutiny by an officer, soldier, [sailor or airman], in the Army, [Navy or Air Force] of the [Government of India], shall, if mutiny be committed in consequence of that abetment, be punished with death or with [imprisonment for life], or imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if a person abets a soldier, officer working under Government of India into causing rebellion that person shall be punished with death, or by imprisonment which term can extend upto 10 years and will also be liable for fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 133 - Abetment of assault by soldier, sailor or airman on his superior officer, when in execution of his office.

Whoever abets an assault by an officer, soldier, [sailor or airman], in the Army, [Navy or Air Force] of the [Government of India], on any superior officer being in the execution of his office, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means any person who abets an officer, soldier working under the head of Government of India to assault any superior officer working under the Head of Government of India, that person shall be punished with imprisonment for a period which can extend up to 3 years and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 134 - Abetment of such assault, if the assault committed

Whoever abets an assault by an officer, soldier, [sailor or airman], in the Army, [Navy or Air Force] of the [Government of India], on any superior officer being in the execution of his office, shall, if such assault be committed in consequence of that abetment be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means any person who abets an officer, soldier working under the head of Government of India to assault any superior officer working under the Head of Government of India resulting in vacation of the office, that person shall be punished with imprisonment for a period which can extend up to 7 years and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 135 - Abetment of desertion of soldier, sailor or airman

Whoever, abets the desertion of any officer, soldier, [sailor or airman], in the Army, [Navy or Air Force] of the [Government of India], shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whoever, abets the desertion of any officer, soldier, [sailor or airman], in the Army, [Navy or Air Force] of the [Government of India], shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 136 - Harbouring deserter

Whoever, except as hereinafter excepted, knowing or having reason to believe that an officer, soldier, [sailor or airman], in the Army, [Navy or Air Force] of the [Government of India], has deserted, harbours such officer, soldier, [sailor or airman], shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means Whoever who gives harbour, shelter to an officer who has deserted Army working under the head of government of India (except those who are expected to do so, like family, wife), shall be made liable under this section and shall be punished for a period which can extend to 2 years, or fine, or both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 137 - Deserter concealed on board merchant vessel through negligence of master.

The master or person in charge of a merchant vessel, on board of which any deserter from the Army, [Navy or Air Force] of the [Government of India] is concealed, shall, though ignorant of such concealment, be liable to a penalty not exceeding five hundred rupees, if he might have known of such concealment but for some neglect of his duty as such master or person in charge, or but for some want of discipline on board of the vessel.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if on a merchant vessel of Indian navy a deseter is taking harbour and even if the person in charge of harbour is ignorant of such harbour he shall be liable of fine upto Rs 500.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 138 - Abetment of act of insubordination by soldier, sailor or airman.

Whoever abets what he knows to be an act of insubordination by an officer, soldier, [sailor or airman], in the Army, [Navy or air Force], of the [Government of India], shall, if such act of insubordination be committed in consequence of that abetment, be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which mayex tend to six months, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This secction means if any person abests/assists any offer, soldier in th army under the head of Government of India in his act of insubordination (refusal to follow orders) he shall be held liable and shall be imprisoned which can extend upto the period of 6 months, or fine, or both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Repealed by the Amending Act, 1934 (35 of 1934), s. 2.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 139 - Persons subject to certain Acts.

No person subject to [the Army Act, [the Army Act, 1950 (46 of 1950)], the Naval Discipline Act, [the Indian Navy (Discipline) Act, 1934 (34 of 1934)], [the Air Force Act or [the Air Force Act, 1950 (45 of 1950)]]], is subject to punishment under this Code for any of the offences defined in this Chapter

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means person who are goverend under these acts namely, The Army Act, the Naval Discipline Act, the Air Force act will not be governed under this code.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 140 - Wearing garb or carrying token used by soldier, sailor or airman.

Whoever, not being a soldier, [sailor or airman] in the Military, [Naval or Air] service of the [Government of India], wears any garb or carries any token resembling any garb or token used by such a soldier, [sailor or airman] with the intention that it may be believed that he is such a soldier, [sailor or airman], shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three months, or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means any person who is not an officer, soldier under the head of Government of India if wear any such clothes or takes any such items which resembles to one with the Army, with the intention of creating image in people's mind that he's with army, that person will imprisoned which can be extended up to a period of 3 months, or fine not extending Rupess 500 or both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 141 - Unlawful Assembly

An assembly of five or more persons is designated an "unlawful assembly", if the common object of the persons composing that assembly is-

First.-To overawe by criminal force, or show of criminal force, [the Central or any State Government or Parliament or the Legislature of any State], or any public servant in the exercise of the lawful power of such public servant; or

Second.-To resist the execution of any law, or of any legal process; or

Third.-To commit any mischief or criminal trespass, or other offence; or

Fourth.-By means of criminal force, or show of criminal force, to any person to take or obtain possession of any property, or to deprive any person of the enjoyment of a right of way, or of the use of water or other incorporeal right of which he is in possession or enjoyment, or to enforce any right or supposed right; or

Fifth.-By means of criminal force, or show of criminal force, to compel any person to do what he is not legally bound to do, or to omit to do what he is legally entitled to do.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

An assembly of five or more persons with common object to :

First- Intimidate the Central or any State Government or Parliament or the Legislature of any State, or any public servant by criminal force or show of criminal force during the exercise of lawful power of such public servant.

Second- Resist the implementation of any law or legal process.

Third-Commit any mischief or criminal trespass or other offence

Fourth- Take or obtain possession of any property or deprive a person of enjoyment of his right of way or for use of water or other intangible right of which he/she is in possession or enjoyment or to impose right or supposed right by means or show of criminal force.

Fifth- Force any person to do what he is not legally bound to do or

  • Force a person to omit/not to do what he/she is legally entitled to do.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 142 - Being member of unlawful assembly

Whoever, being aware of facts which render any assembly an unlawful assembly, intentionally joins that assembly, or continues in it, is said to be a member of an unlawful assembly.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whosoever, if aware of the facts that a particular group has been held as unlawful assembly and knowing this the person intentionally joins the group/assembly or continues to be a part of it then such a person is said to be a member of unlawful assembly.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 143 - Punishment

Whoever is a member of an unlawful assembly, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Punishment for being a member of an unlawful assembly is six months imprisonment or fine or both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 144 - Joining unlawful assembly armed with deadly weapon.

Whoever, being armed with any deadly weapon, or with anything which, used as a weapon of offence, is likely to cause death, is a member of an unlawful assembly, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Anyone who is armed with any deadly weapons or with anything which is used as a weapon of offence that is likely to cause death will be charged with fine or imprisoned for a term that may extend to two years or with fine and imprisonment both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 145 - Joining or continuing in unlawful assembly, knowing it has been commanded to disperse.

Whoever joins or continues in an unlawful assembly, knowing that such unlawful assembly has been commanded in the manner prescribed by law to disperse, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extent to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whosoever joins or continues to be a part of unlawful assembly knowing that it has been ordered to dissolve in a way stipulated by law then such an offender shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extent to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 146 - Rioting

Whenever force or violence is used by an unlawful assembly, or by any member thereof, in prosecution of the common object of such assembly, every member of such assembly is guilty of the offence of rioting.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whenever an unlawful assembly or any member of such assembly uses force or violence in pursuance of the common object of the assembly then every member of such assembly is guilty of the offence of rioting.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 147 - Punishment for rioting

Whoever is guilty of rioting, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Anyone guilty of rioting shall be punished with imprisonment for a term of two years or with fine or both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 148 - Rioting, armed with deadly weapon

Whoever is guilty of rioting, being armed with a deadly weapon or with anything which, used as a weapon of offence, is likely to cause death, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Anyone who is guilty of rioting and is armed with any deadly weapons or with anything which is used as a weapon of offence that is likely to cause death will be charged with fine or imprisoned for a term that may extend to three years or with fine and imprisonment both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 149 - Every member of unlawful assembly guilty of offence committed in prosecution of common object.

If an offence is committed by any member of an unlawful assembly in prosecution of the common object of that assembly, or such as the members of that assembly knew to be likely to be committed in prosecution of that object, every person who, at the time of the committing of that offence, is a member of the same assembly, is guilty of that offence.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

If any member of the unlawful assembly commits an offence or knows that such offence was likely committed in pursuance of their common object then every member who was a member of the assembly at the time when offence was committed will be held guilty for that offence.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 150 - Hiring, or conniving at hiring, of persons to join unlawful assembly

Whoever hires or engages, or employees, or promotes, or connives at the hiring, engagement or employment of any person to join or become a member of any unlawful assembly, shall be punishable as a member of such unlawful assembly, and for any offence which may be committed by any such person as a member of such unlawful assembly in pursuance of such hiring, engagement or employment, in the same manner as if he had been a member of such unlawful assembly, or himself had committed such offence.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whosoever hires or engages or employees or promotes or schemes to hire, engage or employ any person to join or become a member of any unlawful assembly then such an offender shall be punishable as a member of such an unlawful assembly and any offence committed by such a member  regarding the hiring, engagement or employment will be punishable as if he himself has committed the offence or had been a member of such unlawful assembly while committing the offence.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 151 - Knowingly joining or continuing in assembly of five or more persons after it has been commanded to disperse

Whoever knowingly joins or continues in any assembly of five or more persons likely to cause a disturbance of the public peace, after such assembly has been lawfully commanded to disperse, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

If a person knowingly joins or continues to be part of the assembly after it has been lawfully commanded to disperse and offender knows that it is likely to cause disturbance of the public peace then such an offender will be charged with fine or imprisoned for six months or both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 152 - Assaulting or obstructing public servant when suppressing riot, etc.

Whoever assaults or threatens to assault, or obstructs or attempts to obstruct, any public servant in the discharge of his duty as such public servant, in endeavouring to disperse an unlawful assembly, or to suppress a riot or affray, or uses, or threatens, or attempts to use criminal force to such public servant, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

  • Whosoever assaults or
  • threatens to assault or
  • obstructs or
  • uses or
  • threatens or
  • attempts to use criminal force or
  • attempts to obstruct any public servant who is doing his duty to disperse such an unlawful assembly or doing his duty to suppress a riot or affray,

 then such an offender shall be charged with fine or imprisoned up to three years or both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 153 - Want only giving provocation with intent to cause riot-if rioting be committed: if not committed.

Whoever malignantly, or wantonly by doing anything which is illegal, gives provocation to any person intending or knowing it to be likely that such provocation will cause the offence of rioting to be committed, shall, if the offence of rioting be committed in consequence of such provocation, be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both, and if the offence of rioting be not committed, with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

By doing anything illegal whosoever maliciously or wantonly provokes any person with an intention or knowledge that such provocation would likely cause the offence of rioting.

If the offence of rioting is committed as a consequence of such provocation then such an offender will be charged with fine or imprisoned for one year or both.

If the offence of rioting is not committed then such an offender will be charged with fine and imprisoned for a term of six months or both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 153A - Promoting enmity between different groups on ground of religion, race, place of birth, residence, language, etc., and doing acts prejudicial to maintenance of harmony

(1)Whoever-

(a) by words, either spoken or written, or by signs or by visible representations or otherwise, promotes or attempts to promote, on grounds of religion, race, place of birth, residence, language, caste or community or any other ground whatsoever, disharmony or feelings of enmity, hatred or ill-will between different religious, racials, language or regional groups or castes or communities, or

(b) commits any act which is prejudicial to the maintenance of harmony between different religious, racial, language or regional groups or castes or communities, and which disturbs or is likely to disturb the public tranquillity, [or]

[(c) organizes any exercise, movement, drill or other similar activity intending that the participants in such activity shall use or be trained to use criminal force or violence or knowing it to be likely that the participants in such activity will use or be trained to use criminal force or violence, or

participates in such activity intending to use or be trained to use criminal force or violence or knowing it to be likely that the participants in such activity will use or be trained to use criminal force or violence, against any religious, racial, language or regional group or caste or community and such activity for any reason whatsoever causes or is likely to cause fear or alarm or a feeling of insecurity amongst members of such religious, racial, language or regional group or caste or community,]

shall be punished with imprisonment which may extend to three years,or with fine, or with both.              

(2) Offence committed in place of worship, etc.--Whoever commits an offence specified in sub-section (1) in any place of worship or in any assembly engaged in the performance of religious worship or religious ceremonies, shall be punished with imprisonment which may extend to five years and shall also be liable to fine.]

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

(1)(a)Whosoever on the grounds of religion, race, place of birth, residence, language, caste or community or any other ground whatsoever by words either spoken or written or by signs or by visible representations or otherwise promotes or attempts to promote disharmony or feelings of enmity, hatred or ill-will between different religious, racials, language or regional groups or castes or communities, or any other ground whatsoever disharmony or feelings of enmity, hatred or ill-will between different religious, racials, language or regional groups or castes or communities or

(b) If anyone commits any act which causes disharmony between various religious, racial, language or regional groups or castes or communities and which disturbs or is likely to disturb the peace.

(c) If anyone organizes exercise, movement, drill or other similar activity with an intention to train the participants that they use criminal force or violence or knowing that such participants will likely be trained to use criminal force or violence or

  •  if anyone participates in the exercise, movement or drill intending to use criminal force or violence or knowing it to be likely that participants in such activity will use or
  • be trained to use criminal force or violence, against any religious, racial, language or regional group or caste or community and such activity for any reason whatsoever  causes or
  • is likely to cause fear or alarm or a feeling of insecurity amongst members of such religious, racial, language or regional group or caste or community,
  • and such an offender shall be punished with imprisonment which may extend to three years or with fine or both.

(2)  If anyone commits offence specified in sub-section (1)in place of worship or in any assembly engaged in the performance of religious worship or religious ceremonies then such an offender shall be punished with imprisonment which may extend to five years and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 153AA - Punishment for knowingly carrying arms in any procession or organising, or holding or taking part in any mass drill or mass training with arms

Whoever knowingly carries arms in any procession or organizes or holds or take part in any mass drill or mass training with arms in any public place in contravention of any public notice or order issued or made under section 144-A of Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1973) shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months and with fine which may extend to two thousand rupees.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Anyone who knowingly carries arms in any march or organizes or holds or take part in any mass drill or mass training with arms in any public place in contravention of any public notice or order issued or made under section 144-A of Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1973) then such an offender shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months and with fine which may extend to two thousand rupees.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 153B - Imputations, assertions prejudicial to national integration

(1) Whoever, by words either spoken or written or by signs or by visible representations or otherwise,-

(a) makes or publishes any imputation that any class of persons cannot, by reason of their being members of any religious, racial, language or regional group or caste or community, bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of India as by law established or uphold the sovereignty and integrity of India, or

(b) asserts, counsels, advises, propagates or publishes that any class of persons by reason of their being members of any religious, racial, language or regional group or caste or community be denied, or deprived of their rights as citizens of India, or

 (c) makes or publishes and assertion, counsel, plea or

appeal concerning the obligation of any class of persons, by reason of their being members of any religious, racial, language or regional group or caste or community, and such assertion counsel, plea or appeal causes or is likely to cause disharmony or feelings of enmity or hatred or ill-will between such members and other persons, shall be punished with imprisonment which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

(2) Whoever commits an offence specified in sub-section (1), in any place of worship or in any assembly engaged in the performance of religious worship or religious ceremonies, shall be punished with imprisonment which may extend to five years and shall also be liable to fine].

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

  • Whoever, by words either spoken or written or by signs or by visible representations or otherwise,
  • Makes or publishes any allegations stating that any class of persons cannot bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of India as by law established or uphold the sovereignty and integrity of India by reason of their being members of any religious, racial, language or regional group or caste or community
  • If anyone asserts, counsels, advises, propagates or publishes that any class of persons be denied or deprived of their rights as citizens of India by reason of their being members of any religious, racial, language or regional group or caste or community.
  • If anyone makes or publishes and assertion, counsel, plea or appeal concerning the obligation of any class of persons, by reason of their being members of any religious, racial language or regional group or caste or  community, and such  assertion, counsel, plea or appeal causes or is likely to cause disharmony or feelings of enmity or hatred or ill-will between such  members and other persons, shall be punished with imprisonment which may extend to three years  or with fine, or with both.
  • Whoever commits an offence specified in sub-section (1), in any place of worship or in any assembly engaged in the  performance  of religious worship or religious ceremonies, shall  be punished with  imprisonment which may extend to five years and shall also be liable to pay fine

           

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 154 - Owner or occupier of land on which an unlawful assembly is held.

Whenever any unlawful assembly or riot takes place, the owner or occupier of the land upon which such unlawful assembly is held, or such riot is committed, and any person having or claiming an interestin such land, shall be punishable with fine not exceeding one thousand rupees, if he or his agent or manager, knowing that such offence is being or has been committed, or having reason to believe it is likely to be committed, do not give the earliest notice thereof in his or their power to the principal officer at the nearest police-station, and do not, in the case of his or their having reason to believe that it was about to be committed, use all lawful means in his or their power to prevent it and, in the event of its taking place, do not use all lawful means in his or their power to disperse or suppress the riot or unlawful assembly.

 

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

  • Whenever any unlawful assembly or riot takes place on the land of the owner and any person claiming interest in such riot will be punished with fine not exceeding one thousand rupees

If the owner or his agent or manager knowing that such offence is being or has been committed or has a reason to believe that such an offence is likely to be committed and in spite of knowing this does not provide earliest notice to the nearest police station and having reason to believe that such an offence is about to be committed use all lawful means in his or their power to prevent it and on the event of occurrence of the offence  do not use all lawful means in his or their power to disperse or suppress the riot or unlawful assembly.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 155 - Liability of person for whose benefit riot is committed.

Whenever a riot is committed for the benefit or on behalf of any person who is the owner or occupier of any land respecting which such riot takes place or who claims any interest in such land, or in the subject of any dispute which gave rise to the riot, or who has accepted or derived any benefit therefrom, such person shall be punishable with fine, if he or his agent or manager, having reason to believe that such riot was likely to be committed or that the unlawful assembly by which such riot was committed was likely to be held, shall not respectively use all lawful means in his or their power to prevent such assembly or riot from taking place, and for suppressing and dispersing the same.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

  • Whenever riot is committed for the benefit or on behalf of any person who is the owner or occupier of any land or
  • Who claim any interest in such land or
  • Who claims interest in the subject matter of the dispute
  • Who has derived any benefit  from such land
  • Then such an offender shall be punishable with fine
  • If the person/owner, his agent or his manager had a reason to believe that such riot was likely to be committed and such person, his agent or his manager does not utilize all lawful means in their power to prevent such an assembly or riot from taking place and for suppressing or dispersing it.  

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 156 - Liability of agent of owner or occupier for whose benefit riot is committed.

Whenever a riot is committed for the benefit or on behalf of any person who is the owner or occupier of any land respecting which such riot takes place, or who claims any interest in such land, or in the subject of any dispute which gave rise to the riot, or who has accepted or derived any benefit therefrom, the agent or manager of such person shall be punishable with fine, if such agent or manager, having reason to believe that such riot was likely to be committed, or that the unlawful assembly by which such riot was committed was likely to be held, shall not use all lawful means in his power to prevent such riot or assembly from taking place and for suppressing and dispersing the same.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

  • Whenever riot is committed for the benefit or on behalf of any person who is the owner or occupier of any land or
  • Who claim any interest in such land or
  • Who claims interest in the subject matter of the dispute
  • Who has derived any benefit  from such land
  • Then such an offender shall be punishable with fine
  • If his agent or his manager had a reason to believe that such riot was likely to be committed and his agent or his manager does not utilize all lawful means in their power to prevent such an assembly or riot from taking place and for suppressing or dispersing it. 

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 157 - Harbouring persons hired for an unlawful assembly.

Whoever harbours, receives or assembles, in any house or premises in his occupation or charge, or under his control any persons knowing that such persons have been hired, engaged or employed, or are about to be hired, engaged or employed, to join or become members of an unlawful assembly, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whosoever nurtures, receives or assembles any persons in his house or premises or in his occupation or   charge or under his control knowing that such persons have been hired, engaged or employed, or are about to be hired, engaged or employed, to join or become members of an unlawful assembly then such an offender shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months or with fine or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 158 - Being hired to take part in an unlawful assembly or riot

Whoever is engaged, or hired, or offers or attempts to be hired or engaged, to do or assist in doing any of the acts specified in section 141, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine, or with both.

or to go armed.  And whoever, being so engaged or hired as aforesaid, goes armed, or engages or offers to go armed, with any deadly weapon or with anything which used as a weapon of offence is likely to cause death, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

  • Whosoever is engaged ,or hired or
  • offers or attempts to be hired or engaged to do or assist in doing any of the acts mentioned under section 141

 Then such an offender shall be punished with imprisonment up to six months or with fine or both.

or to go armed.  And anyone who is engaged or hired to be engaged goes armed or offers to go armed with any deadly weapon or anything which is used as a weapon of offence that will likely cause death then such an offender shall be punished with imprisonment for a term that may extend up to two years or with fine or both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 159 - Affray

When two or more persons, by fighting in a public place, disturb the public peace, they are said to "commit an affray".

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

When two or more people fights in a public place and disturbs public peace then such persons are said to commit an affray.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 160 - Punishment for committing affray.

Whoever commits an affray, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one month, or with fine which may extend to one hundred rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Persons committing affray will be imprisonment for a term which may extend to one month, or with fine which may extend to one hundred rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 161 - Public servant taking Gratification other than legal remuneration in respect of an official act.

[Rep. by the prevention of corruption act, 1988 (49 of 1988), sec. 31 (w.e.f. 9-9-1988).]

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

[Repealed by the prevention of corruption act, 1988 (49 of 1988), sec. 31 (w.e.f. 9-9-1988).]

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 162 - Taking gratification, in order, by corrupt or illegal means, to influeance public servant.

[Rep. by the prevention of corruption act, 1988 (49 of 1988), sec. 31 (w.e.f. 9-9-1988).]

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

[Repealed by the prevention of corruption act, 1988 (49 of 1988), sec. 31 (w.e.f. 9-9-1988).]

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 163 - Taking gratification, for exercise or personal influeance with public servant.

[Rep. by the prevention of corruption act, 1988 (49 of 1988), sec. 31 (w.e.f. 9-9-1988).]

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

[Repealed by the prevention of corruption act, 1988 (49 of 1988), sec. 31 (w.e.f. 9-9-1988).]

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 164 - Punishment for abetment by public servant of offences defined in section 162 or 163.

[Rep. by the prevention of corruption act, 1988 (49 of 1988), sec. 31 (w.e.f. 9-9-1988).]

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

[Repealed by the prevention of corruption act, 1988 (49 of 1988), sec. 31 (w.e.f. 9-9-1988).]

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

[Repealed by the prevention of corruption act, 1988 (49 of 1988), sec. 31 (w.e.f. 9-9-1988).]

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 165A - Punishment for abetment of offences defined in section 161 or section 165

[Rep. by the prevention of corruption act, 1988 (49 of 1988), sec. 31 (w.e.f. 9-9-1988).]

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

[Repealed by the prevention of corruption act, 1988 (49 of 1988), sec. 31 (w.e.f. 9-9-1988).]

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 166 - Public servant disobeying law, with intent to cause injury to any person.

Whoever, being a public servant, knowingly disobeys any direction of the law as to the way in which he is to conduct himself as such public servant, intending to cause, or knowing it to be likely that he will, by such disobedience, cause injury to any person, shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means a public servant is supposed to uphold the law and when that servant knowingly disobeys law which he should not and by doing this cause injury to another person, such public officer shall be held liable under this section and shall be imprisoned for a term which can extend to one year, or fine, or both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 166A - Public servant disobeying direction under law

Whoever, being a public servant,
(a) knowingly disobeys any direction of the law which prohibits him from requiring the attendance at any place of any person for the purpose of investigation into an offence or any other matter, or
(b) knowingly disobeys, to the prejudice of any person, any other direction of the law regulating the manner in which he shall conduct such investigation, or
(c) fails to record any information given to him under sub-section (1) of section 154 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974), in relation to cognizable offence punishable under section 326A, section 326B, section 354, section 354B, section 370, section 370A, section 376, section 376A, section 376B, section 376C, section 376D, section 376E or section 509,
shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than six months but which may extend to two years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means A.) if any public servant intentionally disobeys laws which empowers him to take attendence of any person for the purpose of investigation, B.) intentionally cause harm, injury to a person for the purpose of investigation even in the presence of a prescribed procedure or manner. C.) The said Public Servant fails to register a Complaint made to him in respect of commission of an cognizable offence punishable under section 326A, 326B, 354, 354B, 370, 370A, 376, 376A, 376B, 376C, 376D, 376E 509. That public officer shall he held liable under this section and shall be imprisoned for a period of 6 months which can extend upto 2 years, and shall also be liable for fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 166B - Punishment for non-treatment of vitctim

whoever, being in charge of a hospital, public or private, whether run  by the centeral government, the state government, local bodies, or any other person, contravences the provisions of section 357C of the code of criminal procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974), shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year or with fine or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means any person who is in charge of a public or private hospital shall have to give treatment (First-Aid) to victim and then inform poilice if they don't do this den such person shall be punished of which term can extend to one year, or with fine, or both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 167 - Public servant framing an incorrect document with intent to cause injury.

Whoever, being a public servant, and being, as such public servant, charged with the preparation or translation of any document, frames or translates that document in a manner which he knows or believes to be incorrect, intending thereby to cause or knowing it to be likely that he may thereby cause injury to any person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if any public officer who is in charge of submitting documents pertaining to a matter of someone's injury etc, that officer knowingly submits incorrect document he shall be punished with imprisonment which can extend to 3 years or fine or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 168 - Public servant unlawfully engaging in trade

Whoever, being a public servant, and being legally bound as such public servant not to engages in trade, engages in trade, shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if a public servant who is not allowed to be apart with illegal trade if does so than such an officer shall be imprisoned for a period which may extend to 1 year or with fine or both. For eg. A a police officer is involved in Narcotics and drugs trade, he shall be punished under this section.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 169 - Public servant unlawfully buying or bidding for property

Whoever, being a public servant, and being legally bound as such public servant, not to purchase or bid for certain property, purchases or bids for that property, either in his own name or in the name of another, or jointly, or in shares with others, shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both; and the property, if purchased, shall be confiscated.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means a public servant shall not buy a certain property which is prohibited for public officers to buy, he cannot buy It in someone else's name or jointly or shares with others, if he does that he shall be punished with simple imprisonment which can extend upto 2 years, or fine, or both, and the property bought shall be confiscated.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 170 - Personating a public servant.

Whoever pretends to hold any particular office as public servant, knowing that he does not hold such office or falsely personates any other person holding such office, and in such assumed character does or attempts to do any act under colour of such office, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if any person pretends to be a public officer, knowing that he doesn't actually holds that office, he falsely personates holding a public officer's office and does or attempt to do any act under the name of such office, that person shall be held liable and be imprisoned which can extend to a period of 2 years, or fine, or both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 171 - Wearing garb or carrying token used by public servant with fraudulent intent

Whoever, not belonging to a certain class of public servants, wears any garb or carries any token resembling any garb or token used by that class of public servants, with the intention that it may be believed, or with the knowledge that it is likely to be believed, that he belongs to that class of public servants, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description, for a term which may extend to three months, or with fine which may extend to two hundred rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if any person not belonging to a certain class of public officer, uses or shows anything belonging to that class of public servant having intention or knowledge that he belongs to that class of public officer, that person shall be punished with imprisonment which can extend up to the period of 3 months, or fine which may extend to 200 Rs. or both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 171A -

For the purposes of this Chapter-

(a) "candidate" means a person who has been nominated as a candidate at any election;]

(b) "electoral right" means the right of a person to stand, or not to stand as, or to withdraw from being, a candidate or to vote or refrain from voting at an election.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

(a) "Candidate" means a person who has been nominated as a candidate at any election;]

(b) "Electoral right" means the right of a person to stand, or not to stand as, or to withdraw from being, a candidate or to vote or refrain from voting at an election.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 171B - Bribery

(1) Whoever-

(i) gives a gratification to any person with the object of inducing him or any other person to exercise any electoral right or of rewarding any person for having exercised any such right; or

(ii) accepts either for himself or for any other person any gratification as a reward for exercising any such right or for inducing or attempting to induce any other person to exercise any such right, commits the offence of bribery:

Provided that a declaration of public policy or a promise of public action shall not be an offence under this section.

(2) A person who offers, or agrees to give, or offers or attempts to procure, a gratification shall be deemed to give a gratification.

(3) A person who obtains or agrees to accept or attempts to obtain a gratification shall be deemed to accept a gratification, and a person who accepts a gratification as a motive for doing what he does not intend to do, or as a reward for doing what he has not done, shall be deemed to have accepted the gratification as a reward.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

(1) Whosoever

(i) provides satisfaction to any person with the object of convincing him or any other person to exercise any electoral right or tempts him with the reward to exercise such right or

(ii) accepts himself or for any other person any gratification as a reward for exercising any such right or for inducing or attempting to induce any other person to exercise any such right, commits the offence of bribery:

Provided that a declaration of public policy or a promise of public action shall not be an offence under this section.

(2) A person who offers or agrees to give or offers or attempts to attain a benefit shall be deemed to give a gratification

(3) A person who obtains or agrees to accept or attempts to obtain a benefit then such a person shall be deemed to accept benefit and

  • a person who accepts benefit as a motive for doing what he does not intend to do or accepts benefit as a reward for doing what he did not do then such a person shall be deemed to have accepted the benefit as a reward.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 171C - Undue influence at elections

(1) Whoever voluntarily interferes or attempts to interfere with the free exercise of any electoral right commits the offence of undue influence at an election.

(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions of subsection (1), whoever-

(a) threatens any candidate or voter, or any person in whom a candidate or voter is interested, with injury of any kind, or

(b) induces or attempts to induce a candidate or voter to believe that he or any person in whom he is interested will become or will be rendered an object of Divine displeasure or of spiritual censure,

shall be deemed to interfere with the free exercise of the electoral right of such candidate or voter, within the meaning of sub-section(1)

(3) A declaration of public policy or a promise of public action, or the mere exercise or a legal right without intent to interfere with an electoral right, shall not be deemed to be interference within the

meaning of this section.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

(1)Whosoever voluntarily interferes or attempts to interfere with the free exercise of any electoral right commits the offence of undue influence at an election.

(2) Without being biased to the provisions of sub-section (1) whosoever,

(a) threatens any candidate or voter or any person in whom the candidate is interested with injury of any kind or

(b) Persuades or attempt to persuade a candidate or voter or any person to believe that he or any person in whom he is interested will become or will be rendered an object of Divine displeasure or of spiritual censure and such an act will be deemed to be interference with the free exercise of the electoral right of such candidate or voter, within the meaning of sub-section(1).

(3)Declaration of public policy or a promise of public action or the mere exercise of a legal right without an intent to interfere with an electoral right, shall not be considered to be an interference within the meaning of this section.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 171D - Personation at elections

Whoever at an election applies for a voting paper on votes in the name of any other person, whether living or dead, or in a fictitious name, or who having voted once at such election applies at the same election for a voting paper in his own name, and whoever abets, procures or attempts to procure the voting by any person in any such way, commits the offence of personation at an election.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

In an election whosoever applies for voting paper in the name of other person

  • who is living or dead or
  • in a fictitious name or
  • who having voted once at such election applies at the same election for a voting paper in his own name and
  • whosoever abets, procures or attempts to procure the voting by any person in any such way
  • then such a person will be considered to have been committed the offence of personation at an election

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 171E - Punishment for bribery

Whoever commits the offence of bribery shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both:

Provided that bribery by treating shall be punished with fine only.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whoever commits the offence of bribery shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both:

Provided that bribery by treating shall be punished with fine only.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 171F - Punishment for undue influence or personation at an election

Whoever commits the offence of undue influence or personation at an election shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whosoever commits the offence of undue influence or personation at an election shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 171G - False statement in connection with an election

Whoever with intent to affect the result of an election makes or publishes any statement purporting to be a statement of fact which is false and which he either knows or believes to be false or does not believe to be true, in relation to the personal character or conduct of any candidate shall be punished with fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whosoever with an intention to affect the result of an election makes or publishes the statement of facts on personal character or conduct that is false and he /she knows or believes it to be false or does not believe the statement of facts to be true then such an offender shall be punished with fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 171H - Illegal payments in connection with an election

Whoever without the general or special authority in writing of a candidate incurs or authorizes expenses on account of the holding of any public meeting, or upon any advertisement, circular or publication, or in any other way whatsoever for the purpose of promoting or procuring the election of such candidate, shall be punished with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees :

Provided that if any person having incurred any such expenses not exceeding the amount of ten rupees without authority obtains within ten days from the date on which such expenses were incurred the approval in writing of the candidate, he shall be deemed to have incurred such expenses with the authority of the candidate.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whosoever without the general or special authority in writing of the candidate incurs or authorizes expenses for holding meetings or for purpose of advertising, publishing or circulating for the purpose of promoting or procuring  elections then such an offender shall be punished with fine that may extend up to five hundred rupees.

Provided that : If a person without any authority incurs the expenses not exceeding ten rupees but obtains authority within ten days from the date on which such expenses were incurred then such a person has incurred the expenses within the authority of the candidate.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 171I - Failure to keep election accounts

Whoever being required by any law for the time being in force or any rule having the force of law to keep accounts of expenses incurred at or in connection with an election fails to keep such accounts shall be punished with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whosoever if authorized by law to keep the accounts of expenses incurred at or in connection with election for the time being in consideration or according to the any rule having the force of law if fails to keep such accounts then the offender shall be punished with fine that may extend up to five hundred rupees.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 172 - Absconding to avoid service of summons or other proceeding

Whoever absconds in order to avoid being served with a summons, notice or order proceeding from any public servant legally competent, as such public servant, to issue such summons, notice or order, shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to one month, or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with both; or, if the summons or notice or order is to attend in person or by agent, or to produce a document in a Court of Justice, with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

  • Whosoever absconds to avoid being served  summons, notice or other proceedings from a public servant then such an offender shall be punished with imprisonment that may extend to one month or with fine that may extend to five hundred rupees or with both
  • And if the notice or summons is to attend in person or by agent or to produce a document in a court of justice then the offender shall be punished with imprisonment that may extend up to six months or with fine that may extend to one thousand rupees or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 173 - Preventing service of summons or other proceeding, or preventing publication thereof

Whoever in any manner intentionally prevents the serving on himself, or on any other person, of any summons, notice or order proceeding from any public servant legally competent, such public servant, to issue such summons, notice or order, or intentionally prevents the lawful affixing to any place of any such summons, notice or order, or intentionally removes any such summons, notice or order from any place to which it is lawfully affixed, or intentionally prevents the lawful making of any proclamation, under the authority of any public servant legally competent, as such public servant, to direct such proclamation to be made, shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to one month, or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with both; or, if the summons, notice, order or proclamation is to attend in person or by agent, or to produce a document in a Court of Justice, with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

  • Whosoever intentionally prevents the serving of notice or summons in any manner from any public servant
  • Whosoever intentionally prevents the lawful affixing to any place of any such summons, notice or
  • intentionally removes any such summons, notice or order from any place to which it is lawfully affixed, or
  • intentionally prevents the lawful making of any proclamation, under the authority of any public servant legally competent, as such public servant, to direct such proclamation to be made

Then such an offender shall be imprisoned up to one month or with fin which may extend up to five hundred rupees or with both .

  • If the summons, notice, order or proclamation is to attend in person or by agent, or to produce a document in a Court of Justice

Then the offender shall be imprisonment for a term of six months or with fine that may extend to one thousand rupees or both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 174 - Non-attendance in obedience to an order from public servant

Whoever, being legally bound to attend in person or by an agent at a certain place and time in obedience to a summons, notice, order, or proclamation proceeding from any public servant legally competent, as such public servant, to issue the same, intentionally omits to attend at that place or time, or departs from the place where he is bound to attend before the time at which it is lawful for him to depart, shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to one month, or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with both;

or, if the summons, notice, order or proclamation is to attend in person or by agent in a Court of Justice, with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

  • Whosoever if legally bound to attend the notice, summons, order or  proclamation proceeding  in  person or by an agent issued by a public servant who is legally competent to issue the same and the person if intentionally fails to attend or departs from the place before time when he is lawfully bound to depart then such an offender shall be punished with imprisonment for a term that may extend to one month or with fine that may extend to five hundred rupees or with both
  • If the summons, notice, order or proclamation is to attend in person or by agent in a Court of Justice and the offender fails to follow the given instructions then he/she will be imprisoned up to six months or with fine that may extend up to one thousand rupees or both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 174A - Non-appearance in response to a proclamation under section 82 of Act 2 of 1974

Whoever fails to appear at the specified place and the specified time as required by a proclamation published under sub?section (1 )of section 82 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years or with fine or with both, and where a declaration has been made under sub?section (4) of that section pronouncing him as a proclaimed offender, he shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to seven years and shall also be liable to fine.]

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Anyone who fails to appear at the specified place and the specified time as required by a proclamation published under sub?section (1 )of section 82 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 then such an offender shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years or with fine or with both, and where a declaration has been made under sub?section (4) of section 82 (Where a proclamation published under sub-section (1) is in respect of a period accused of an offence punishable under Sections 302, 304, 364, 367, 382, 392, 393, 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, 399, 400, 402, 436, 449, 459 or 460 of the Indian Penal Code, and such person fails to appear at the specified place and time required by the proclamation, the Court may, after making such inquiry as it thinks fit, pronounce him a proclaimed offender and make a declaration to that effect.)  pronouncing him as a declared offender, then he shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to seven years and shall also be liable to fine.]

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 175 - Omission to produce document to public servant by person legally bound to produce it

Whoever, being legally bound to produce or deliver up any document to any public servant, as such, intentionally omits so to produce or deliver up the same, shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to one month, or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whosoever if legally bound to produce or deliver any document to public servant if intentionally fails to do so then such an offender shall be imprisoned for a term that may extend to one month or with fine that may extend to five hundred rupees or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 176 - Omission to give notice or information to public servant by person legally bound to give it

Whoever, being legally bound to give any notice or to furnish information on any subject to any public servant, as such, intentionally omits to give such notice or to furnish such information in the manner and at the time required by law, shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to one month, or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with both; or, if the notice or information required to be give respects  the commission of an offence, or is required for the purpose of preventing the commission of an offence, or in order to the apprehension of an offender, with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both;[or, if the notice or information required to be given is required by an order passed under sub-section (1) of section 565 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898 (5 of 1898), with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.]

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

  • Whosoever being legally bound to give notice or provide information on any subject to any public servant and such a person intentionally fails to give such notice or to provides such information in the same manner and time as is required by law and if the person fails to do so then he/she shall be punished with imprisonment for a term that may extend to one month or with fine which may extend up to five hundred rupees or with both.
  • If the notice or information required to be given in respect to the commission of an offence, or is required for the purpose of preventing the commission of an offence, or in order to the apprehension of an offender is not abided by then the offender shall be provided with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.
  • If the notice or information required to be given is required by an order passed under sub-section (1) of section 565 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898 (5 of 1898), and offender fails to oblige then he/she shall be awarded imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 177 - Furnishing false information

Whoever, being legally bound to furnish information on any subject to any public servant, as such, furnishes, as true, information on the subject which he knows or has reason to believe to be false shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both; or, if the information which he is legally bound to give respects the commission of an offence, or is required for the purpose of preventing the commission of an offence, or in order to the apprehension of an offender, with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

  • Whosoever is legally bound to provide information to public servant and provides a false information which he knows to be as false and has a reason to believe that the information provided is false then such an offender shall be imprisoned for a term which may extend to six months or with fine that may extend to one thousand rupees or with both
  • If the information which he is legally bound to give regarding the commission of an offence, or if the information is required for the purpose of preventing the commission of an offence, or in order to the apprehension of an offender, then the offender shall be awarded with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 178 - Refusing oath or affirmation when duly required by public servant to make it

Whoever refuses to bind himself by an oath [or affirmation] to state the truth, when required so to bind himself by a public servant legally competent to require that he shall so bind himself, shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

When a person refuses a public servant who is legally competent to require a person to give oath for stating the truth then such a person shall be imprisoned for a term that may extend up to six months or with fine which may extend up to one thousand rupees or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 179 - Refusing to answer public servant authorized to question

Whoever, being legally bound to state the truth on any subject to any public servant, refuses to answer any question demanded of him.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whosoever is legally bound to state the truth on any subject if refuses to answer any question asked of him regarding the subject by public servant who has an authority to exercise his legal power then such an offender shall be imprisoned for a term that may extend up to six months or with fine that may extend up to one thousand rupees or both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 180 - Refusing to sign statement

Whoever refuses to sign any statement made by him, when required to sign that statement by a public servant legally competent to require that he shall sign that statement, shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to three months, or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

When a statement is required to be signed and anyone who refuses to sign any statement made by him then such a person shall be punished with imprisonment up to three months or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 181 - False statement on oath or affirmation to public servant or person authorized to administer an oath or affirmation

Whoever, being legally bound by an oath [or affirmation] to state the truth on any subject to any public servant or other person authorized by law to administer such oath [or affirmation], makes, to such public servant or other person as aforesaid, touching that subject, any statement which is false, and which he either knows or believes to be false or does not believe to be true, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whosoever legally bound by an oath to state truth to any public servant on any subject if makes a false statement knowing or believing it to be false or does not believe to be true then such an offender shall be punished with imprisonment up to three years and shall also be liable to pay fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 182 - False information, with intent to cause public servant to use his lawful power to the injury of another person

Whoever gives to any public servant any information which he knows or believes to be false, intending thereby to cause, or knowing it to be likely that he will thereby cause such public servant-

(a) to do or omit anything which such public servant ought not to do or omit if the true state of facts respecting which such information is given were known by him, or

(b) to use the lawful power of such public servant to the injury or annoyance of any person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whosoever gives any false information to any public servant knowing and believing it to be false with an intention to cause or knowing that he will likely cause such public servant :

(a)  to do or fail to do anything which such public servant should not do or fails to provide with true facts were known by him regarding the information

(b) to utilize all lawful power of such public servant that might cause injury or annoy any other person

Then such an offender shall be imprisoned for a term that may extend up to six months or with fine that may extend to one thousand rupees or both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 183 - Resistance to the taking of property by the lawful authority of a public servant

Whoever offers any resistance to the taking of any property by the lawful authority of any public servant, knowing or having reason to believe that he is such public servant, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Anyone who resists the public servant while his property is taken knowing and having reason to believe that such a person is public servant then the offender shall be imprisoned for a term that may extend to six months or with fine that may extend to one thousand rupees or both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 184 - Obstructing sale of property offered for sale by authority of public servant

Whoever intentionally obstructs any sale of property offered for sale by the lawful authority of any public servant, as such, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one month, or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Anyone with an intention to provide hindrance to any sale of property offered for sale by a lawful authority shall be imprisonment for a term which may extend to one month, or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 185 - Illegal purchase or bid for property offered for sale by authority of public servant

Whoever, at any sale of property held by the lawful authority of a public servant, as such, purchases or bids for any property on account of any person, whether himself or any other, whom he knows to be under a legal incapacity to purchase that property at that sale, or bids for such property not intending to perform the obligations under which he lays himself by such bidding, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one month, or with fine which may extend to two hundred rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Anyone at the sale of property held by the lawful authority of a public servant purchases or bids for any property on behalf of a person, whether he himself or any other, whom he knows to be under a legal incapacity to purchase that property at that sale, or bids for such property not intending to perform the obligations that befall upon him by bidding, then such an offender  shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one month, or with fine which may extend to two hundred rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 186 - Obstructing public servant in discharge of public functions

Whoever voluntarily obstructs any public servant in the discharge of his public functions, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three months, or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whoever voluntarily hinders the discharge of public functions of the public servant shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three months, or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 187 - Omission to assist public servant when bound by law to give assistance

Whoever, being bound by law to render or furnish assistance to any public servant in the execution of his public duty, intentionally omits to give such assistance, shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to one month, or with fine which may extend to two hundred rupees, or with both; and if such assistance be demanded of him by a public servant legally competent to make such demand for the purposes of executing any process lawfully issued by a Court of Justice, or of preventing the commission of an offence, or suppressing a riot, or affray, or of apprehending a person charged with or guilty of an offence, or of having escaped from lawful custody, shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

  • Anyone who is bound by law to provide assistance to public servant in discharge of his duty if  intentionally fails to provide such assistance then he/she shall punished with simple imprisonment which may extend to one month, or with fine which may extend to two hundred rupees, or with both
  • If a public servant is legally competent to demand assistance from such a person for the purposes of executing any process lawfully issued by a Court of Justice, or of Preventing the  commission of an offence, or  suppressing a riot, or  affray, or of apprehending a person charged with or guilty of an offence, or of having escaped from lawful  custody then he/she shall be punished with  simple imprisonment for a term which  may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with both.

            

          

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 188 - Disobedience to order duly promulgated by public servant

Whoever, knowing that, by an order promulgated by a public servant lawfully empowered to promulgate such order, he is directed to abstain from a certain act, or to take certain order with certain property in his possession or under his management. disobeys such direction, shall, if such disobedience causes or tends to cause obstruction, annoyance or injury, or risk of obstruction, annoyance or injury, to any persons lawfully employed, be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to one month or with fine which may extend to two hundred rupees, or with both: and if such disobedience causes or tends to cause danger to human life, health or safety, or causes or tends to cause a riot or affray, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

  • Anyone who is aware that an order has been circulated by a public servant for abstaining the person from committing certain act or to take certain order with certain property in his possession or under his management if fails to obey and such disobedience causes or tends to cause hindrance, annoyance or injury or there is a risk of hindrance, annoyance or injury  to any people lawfully employed then such a person shall be imprisoned for a term which may extend to one month or with fine which may extend to two hundred rupees, or with both.
  • If such disobedience causes or tends to cause danger to human life, health or safety, or causes or tends to cause a riot or affray, shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 189 - Threat of injury to public servant

Whoever holds out any threat of injury to any public servant, or to any person in whom he believes that public servant to be interested, for the purpose of inducing that public servant to do any act, or to forbear or delay to do any act, connected with the exercise of the public functions of such public servant, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Anyone who threatens to injure public servant or any other person in whom he believes that public servant to be interested for the purpose of inducing that public servant to do any act, or to forbear or delay to do any act, related with the exercise of the public functions of such public servant then such an offender shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 190 - Threat of injury to induce person to refrain from applying for protection to public servant

Whoever holds out any threat of injury to any person for the purpose of inducing that person to refrain or desist from making a legal application for protection against any injury to any public servant legally empowered as such to give such protection, or to cause such protection to be given, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Anyone who holds out any threat of injury to any person for the purpose of inducing that person to refrain or abstaining from making a legal application for protection against any injury to any public servant legally empowered as such to give such protection, or to cause such protection to be given, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 191 - Giving false evidence

Whoever, being legally bound by an oath or by an express provision of law to state the truth, or being
bound by law to make a declaration upon any subject, makes any statement which is false, and which he either knows or believes to be false or does not believe to be true, is said to give false evidence.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section defines what a false evidence is, when a person takes oath, or is bound by law to make a true statement, but instead makes a statement which is false, and that he knows that the said statement is false or he believes it to be false, it's said as an false evidence.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 192 - Fabricating false evidence

Whoever causes any circumstance to exist or [makes any false entry in any book or record, or makes any document containing a false statement], intending that such circumstance, false entry or false statement may appear in evidence in a judicial proceeding, or in a proceeding taken by law before a public servant as such, or before an arbitrator, and that such circumstance, false entry or false statement, so appearing in evidence, may cause any person who in such proceeding is to form an opinion upon the evidence, to entertain an erroneous opinion touching any point material to the result of such proceeding is said "to fabricate false evidence".

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section talks about, "fabricating false evidence" any person who makes a false entry anywhere, in any book of record, or any document containing a false evidence and present it before the court of law as an evidence, and such false document or record will help the public officer to make opinion in a case, and any result reached on the basis of such false evidence will mean fabricate false evidence.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 193 - Punishment for false evidence

Whoever intentionally gives false evidence in any of a judicial proceeding, or fabricates false evidence for the purpose of being used in any stage of a judicial proceeding, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine;
and whoever intentionally gives or fabricates false evidence in any other case, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section talks about the punishment relating to submitting false evidence, stating who so ever fabricates a false evidence to be used in the court of law during a judicial proceeding, he shall be imprisoned for a period which may extend to 7 years, and also be liable to fine. Also whoever intentionally gives or fabricates false evidence in any other case shall be punished with imprisonment for a period up to 3 years and also liable for fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 194 - Giving or fabricating false evidence with intent to procure conviction of capital offence;

Whoever gives or fabricates false evidence, intending thereby to cause, or knowing it to be likely that he will thereby cause, any person to be convicted of an offence which is capital [by the laws for the time being in force in [India]] shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], or with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine;

If innocent person be thereby conviceted and executed.--and if an innocent person be convicted and executed in consequence of such false evidence, the person who gives such false evidence shall be punished either with death or the punishment hereinbefore described.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The first part of this section means whoever intentionally procures any false evidence which thereby will lead to awarding capital punishment to that person, he shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment which can extend up to 10 years, and is also liable for fine.    The second part of this section means if an innocent person is convicted and executed due to such false evidence, then the person who gave such false evidence shall be punished with death sentence or with punishment mentioned in first part of this section.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 195 - Giving or fabricating false evidence with intent to procure conviction of offence punishable with imprisonment for life or imprisonment.

Whoever gives or fabricates false evidence intending thereby to cause, or knowing it to be likely that he will thereby cause, any person to be convicted of an offence which [by the law for the time being in force in [India]] is not capital, but punishable with [imprisonment for life], or imprisonment for a term of seven years or upwards, shall be punished as a person convicted of that offence would be liable to be punished.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means the person who provides false evidence, with full knowledge that it'll likely result in conviction of other person (punishment be imprisonment for life{7 years or more} not capital punishment), that person who produces false evidence will get same punishment as the other person would have gotten.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 195A - Threatening any person to give false evidence.

Whoever threatens another with any injury to his person, reputation or property or to the person or reputation of any one in whom that person is interested, with intent to cause that person to give false evidence shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, or with fine, or with both; and if innocent person is convicted and sentenced in consequence of such false evidence, with death or imprisonment for more than seven years, the person who threatens shall be punished with the same punishment and sentence in the same manner and to the same extent such innocent person is punished and sentenced.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

First part of this section means if a person threatens another with injury to his person, reputation or property or anoter's person body, reputation or property whom he's concerned about, with malice intent to provide himself with false evidences he shall be punished with imprisonment that can extend up to 7 years, or fine, or both. Second part of this section means if any innocent person is sentenced and imprisoned (death or 7 years) because of such false evidences then the person who does so will be punished as the same that innocent was punished and sentenced.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 196 - Using evidence known to be false

Whoever corruptly uses or attempts to use as true or genuine evidence any evidence which he knows to be false or fabricated, shall be punished in the same manner as if he gave or fabricated false evidence.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means any person who uses or attempts to use false or fabricated evidence with full knowledge of the evidence being a false evidence he shall be punished as though he himself gave the fabricated false evidence.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 197 - Issuing or signing false certificate

Whoever issues or signs any certificate required by law to be given or signed, or relating to any fact of which such certificate is by law admissible in evidence, knowing or believing that such certificate is false in any material point, shall be punished in the same manner as if he gave false evidence.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means any person who sings or issues any certificate required by law to be signed or any fact of which is admissible as an evidence, if having the knowledge that the certificate so issued and signed is false at any material point, it'll be presumed that he himself gave the fabricated false evidence.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 198 - Using as true a certificate known to be false

Whoever corruptly uses or attempts to use any such certificate as a true certificate, knowing the same to be false in any material point, shall be punished in the same manner as if he gave false evidence.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means any person who  uses or attempts to use any certificate as a true certificate of which he has knowledge it to be false at any material point, it'll be presumed that he himself gave the fabricated false evidence.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 199 - False statement made in declaration which is by law receivable as evidence

Whoever, in any declaration made or subscribed by him, which declaration any Court of Justice, or any public servant or other person, is bound or authorized by law to receive as evidence of any fact, makes any statement which is false, and which he either knows or believes to be false or does not believe to be true, touching any point material to the object for which the declaration is made or used, shall be punished in the same manner as if he gave false evidence.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section makes false statement made in a declaration, by law receivable as evidence, an offence. The section states that whoever, in any declaration made by him, or in any declaration subscribed by him, which declaration any court of justice, or any public servant, or other person, is either bound by law, or authorised by law, to receive as evidence of any fact, makes any false statement and which he either knows to be false or believes to be false, or does not believe to be true, which touches any point material to the object for which the declaration is made or used, shall be punished in the same manner as if he gave false evidence.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 200 - Using as true such declaration knowing it to be flase

Whoever corruptly uses or attempts to use as true any such declaration, knowing the same to be false in any material point, shall be punished in the same manner as if he gave false evidence.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if anyone uses or attempt to use any such decleration as a true declaration which he knows to be a false one at any point is said to get punished in the same manner as if he has given false evidence.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 201 - Causing disappearance of evidence of offence, or giving false information to screen offender.

Whoever, knowing or having reason to believe that an offence has been committed, causes any evidence of the commission of that offence to disappear, with the intention of screening the offender from legal punishment, or with that intention gives any information respecting the offence which he knows or believes to be false,
if a capital offence.-shall, if the offence which he knows or believes to have been committed is punishable with death, be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine;
if punishable with imprisonment for life.-and if the offence is punishable with [imprisonment for life], or with imprisonment which may extend to ten years, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine;
if punishable with less than ten years' imprisonment.-and if the offence is punishable with imprisonment for any term not extending to ten years, shall be punished with imprisonment of the description provided for the offence, for a term which may extend toone-fourth part of the longest term of the imprisonment provided for the offence, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section deals with the intentionally disapperance of evidence of an offence, or giving false information in order to protect the offender,                                    

If a capital offence.- if the offence committed was liable of capital punishment, then punishment to the person who helped will be imprisonment which can extend to 7 years and also be liable for fine.              

If punishable with imprisonment for life. - if the offence committed was liable for life imprisonment  or imprisonment which extend to 10 years, the the person who helped shall be imprisoned for a period which can extend to 3 years and also be liable for fine.

If punishable with less than ten years imprisonment. - if the offence committed was liable for punishment less than 10 years then the person who helped shall be liable for 1/4th of the punishment whichever is higher, or fine, or both of the offence.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 202 - Intentional omission to give information of offence by person bound to inform.

Whoever, knowing or having reason to believe that an offence has been committed, intentionally omits to give any information respecting that offence which he is legally bound to give, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if any person knows regarding an offence which has been committed, and intentionally hides the information which he's legally bound to give, than that person shall be punished with imprisonment which can extend to 6 months, or fine, or both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 203 - Giving false information respecting an offence committed

Whoever, knowing or having reason to believe that an offence has been committed, gives any information respecting that offence which he knows or believes to be false, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if any person knows regarding an offence which has been committed, and intentionally gives wrong information, than that person shall be punished with imprisonment which can extend to 2 years, or fine, or both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 204 - Destruction of document to prevent its production as evidence.

Whoever secrets or destroys any document which he may be lawfully compelled to produce as evidence in a Court of Justice, or in any proceeding lawfully held before a public servant, as such, or
obliterates or renders illegible the whole or any part of such document with the intention of preventing the same from being produced or used as evidence before such Court or public servant as aforesaid,
or after he shall have been lawfully summoned or required to produce the same for that purpose, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with
fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if a person destroyes certain evidence which he was supposed to produce in front of the court of justice or any other legal proceeding before a public servant, if the document is wholly or partially destroyed then the person responsible will be imprisoned for a persiod which may extend to 2 years, or fine, or both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 205 - False personation for purpose of act or proceeding in suit or prosecution.

Whoever falsely personates another, and in such assumed character makes any admission or statement, or confesses judgment, or causes any process to be issued or becomes bail or security, or does any other act in any suit or criminal prosecution, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

It states that whoever falsely personates another, and in such a way that, the assumed character either makes an admission, or makes a statement, or confesses judgment, or causes issuance of any process or becomes bail or becomes security, or does any other act either in any suit or in criminal prosecution, that person shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 3 years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 206 - Fraudulent removal or concealment of property to prevent its seizure as forfeited or in execution.

Whoever fraudulently removes, conceals, transfers or delivers to any person any property or any interest therein, intending thereby to prevent that property or interest therein from being taken as a forfeiture or in satisfaction of a fine, under a sentence which has been pronounced, or which he knows to be likely to be pronounced, by a Court of Justice or other competent authority, or from being taken in execution of a decree or order which has been made, or which he knows to be likely to be made by a Court of Justice in a civil suit, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Fraudulent removal or concealment of property to prevent its seizure as a forfeited property or in execution of a decree or order has been made an offence under this section. The section says that whoever with intention to defraud either remove, conceals, transfers or delivers to any person any property or any interest in that property, with the intention thereby to prevent the taking of that property or interest in that property as a forfeiture or in satisfaction of a fine, under a pronounced sentence, or under a sentence about which he has knowledge that it is likely to be pronounced, by either a court of justice or other competent authority, or prevent the taking of that property or interest in that property in execution of a decree or order made by a court of justice, or about which he has knowledge that such a decree or order is likely to be made by a court of justice in a civil suit, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 2 years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 207 - Fraudulent claim to property to prevent its seizure as forfeited or in execution

Whoever fraudulently accepts, receives or claims any property or any interest therein, knowing that he has no right or rightful claim to such property or interest, or practices any deception touching any right to any property or any interest therein, intending thereby to prevent that property or interest therein from being taken as a forfeiture or in satisfaction of a fine, under a sentence which has been pronounced, or which he knows to be likely to be pronounced by a Court of Justice or other competent authority, or from being taken in execution of a decree or order which has been made, or which he knows to be likely to be made by a Court of Justice in a civil suit, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section punishes fraudulent claim to property to prevent its seizure as forfeited property or in execution of a decree or order. The section states that whoever with intention to defraud either accepts, receives or claims any property or any interest in that property, with the knowledge that he does not have a right or rightful claim to such property or interest, or practices any deception touching any right to any property or any interest therein, with the intention thereby to prevent that property or interest therein from being taken as a forfeiture or in satisfaction of a fine, under a pronounced sentence, or about which he has knowledge that it is likely to be pronounced by a court of justice or other competent authority, or from being taken in execution of a decree or order which has been made, or about which he has knowledge that it is likely to be made by a court of justice in a civil suit, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 2 years, or with fine or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 208 - Fraudulently suffering decree for sum not due.

Whoever fraudulently causes or suffers a decree or order to be passed against him at the suit of any person for a sum not due or for a larger sum than is due to such person or for any property or interest in property to which such person is not entitled, or fraudulently causes or suffers a decree or order to be executed against him after it has been satisfied, or for anything in respect of which it has been satisfied, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section makes fraudulent causing or suffering of a decree or order for a sum not due etc. an offence. It says that whoever with intent to defraud causes or suffers a decree or order to be passed against him at the suit of any person for a sum which is not due, or for a larger sum than is due, to such person or for any property or interest in property to which there is no entitlement of such person, or with intent to defraud causes or suffers a decree or order to be executed against him after it has been satisfied, or for anything in respect of which it has been satisfied, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 2 years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 209 - Dishonestly making false claim in Court

Whoever fraudulently or dishonestly, or with intent to injure or annoy any person, makes in a Court of Justice any claim which he knows to be false, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section penalises making of a false claim in court fraudulently, dishonestly or with a specified intention. It says that whoever makes in a court of justice any claim which he knows to be false either fraudulently, or dishonestly, or with the intention to injure or annoy any person, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 2 years, and shall also to liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 210 - Fraudulently obtaining decree for sum not due

Whoever fraudulently obtains a decree or order against any person for a sum not due, or for a larger sum than is due or for any property or interest in property to which he is not entitled, or fraudulently causes a decree or order to be executed against any person after it has been satisfied or for anything in respect of which it has been satisfied, or fraudulently suffers or permits any such act to be done in his name, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The points requiring proof under Section 210 are:

(i) The accused obtained the decree or order, or permitted or suffered the same to be done in his name;
(ii) The decree or order was for a sum not due, or for a larger sum than was due, or for any property or interest in property to which the accused was not entitled;
(iii) Or the accused fraudulently caused a decree or order to be executed against any person after it had been satisfied, or for anything in respect of which it had been satisfied;
(iv) Or that the accused permitted suffered acts to be done in his name;
(v) The accused did the acts fraudulently.                

The accused will be imprisoned which can extend up to 2 years and shall also be liable for fine

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 211 - False charge of offence made with intent to injure

Whoever, with intent to cause injury to any person, institutes or causes to be instituted any criminal proceeding against that person, or falsely charges any person with having committed an offence, knowing that there is no just or lawful ground for such proceeding or charge against that person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both;
and if such criminal proceeding be instituted on a false charge of an offence punishable with death [imprisonment for life], or imprisonment for seven years or upwards, shall be punishable with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section penalises false charge of offence made with intent to injure another. There are two parts of the section. According to the first part, whoever, with the intention of causing injury to any person, either institutes any criminal proceeding against that person or causes the same to be instituted against him or falsely charges any person that he has committed an offence with the knowledge that any just ground or any lawful ground does not exist for such proceeding or charge against that person, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 2 years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 212 - Harbouring offender-if a capital offence, if punishable with imprisonment for life, or with imprisonment.

Whenever an offence has been committed, whoever harbours or conceals a person whom he knows or has reason to believe to be the offender, with the intention of screening him from legal punishment, if a capital offence;--shall, if the offence is punishable with death, be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years, and shall also be liable to fine; if punishable with imprisonment for life, or with imprisonment.-- and if the offence is punishable with 1*[imprisonment for life], or with imprisonment which may extend to ten years, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine; and if the offence is punishable with imprisonment which may extend to one year, and not to ten years, shall be punished with imprisonment of the description provided for the offence for a term which may extend to one-fourth part of the longest term of imprisonment provided for the offence, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The points requiring proof under Section 212 are:

  1. An offence was committed;
  2. The accused harboured or concealed some person;
  3. The person so harboured or concealed had committed the offence;
  4. The accused then knew, or had reason to believe that the person harboured or concealed was the offender;
  5. In harbouring or concealing him, the accused intended to screen him from legal punishment;
  6. As an aggravated circumstances, the accused knew that the offence committed by the person so harboured or concealed was punishable with-
    (a) death; or
    (b) imprisonment for life, or imprisonment which may extend to ten years. \

The word ‘harbour’ includes supplying a person with shelter, food, drink, money, clothes, arms, ammunition or means of conveyance or assisting a person in any way to evade apprehension. Mere knowledge of the whereabouts of the offender does not amount to harbouring him, unless the alleged harbourer is guilty of providing the person with food, shelter, etc. The exception to Section 212 provides that this section shall not extend to any case in which the harbouring or the concealment is done by the husband or wife of the offender. An offence under Section 212 presupposes that some other offence has been committed by another person whom the accused harbours or conceals with the intention of screening the other person from legal punishment. The harbouring of the person must be done with the intention of screening the person from legal punishment.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 213 - Taking gift, etc., to screen an offender from punishment

Whoever accepts or attempts to obtain, or agrees to accept, any gratification for himself or any other person, or any restitution of property to himself or any other person, in consideration of his concealing an offence or of his screening any person from legal punishment for any offence, or of his not proceeding against any person for the purpose of bringing him to legal punishment,
if a capital offence;-shall, if the offence is punishable with death, be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine;
if punishable with imprisonment for life, or with imprisonment. -and if the offence is punishable with 3*[imprisonment for life], or with imprisonment which may extend to ten years, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine;
and if the offence is punishable with imprisonment not extending to ten years, shall be punished with imprisonment of the description provided for the offence for a term which may extend to one fourth part of the longest term of imprisonment provided for the offence, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section prescribes penalty for taking gift etc. with a view to screen an offender from legal punishment. It says that whoever either accepts or attempts to obtain, or agrees to accept, any gratification either for himself or for any other person, or any restitution of property to himself or to any other person, in consideration of either concealment of an offence by him, or screening of any person by him from legal punishment for any offence, or not proceeding against any person by him for the purpose of bringing him to legal punishment, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending upto seven years, and shall also be liable to fine, where the offence is punishable with death; and shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending upto three years, and shall also be liable to fine where the offence is punishable with imprisonment for life, or imprisonment extending upto ten years; and shall be punished with imprisonment of the description which has been provided for the offence for a term extending upto one-fourth part of the maximum term of imprisonment provided for the offence, or with fine, or with both where the offence is punishable with imprisonment not extending to 10 years.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 214 - Offering gift or restoration of property in consideration of screening offender

Whoever gives or causes, or offers or agrees to
give or cause, any gratification to any person, or [restores or causes the restoration of] any property to any person, in consideration of that person's concealing an offence, or of his screening any person from legal punishment for any offence, or of his not proceeding against any person for the purpose of bringing him to legal punishment,
if a capital offence;-shall, if the offence is punishable with death, be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine;
if punishable with imprisonment for life, or with imprisonment.-
and if the offence is punishable with 3*[imprisonment for life] or with imprisonment which may extend to ten years, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine;          

and if the offence is punishable with imprisonment not extending to ten years, shall be punished with imprisonment of the description provided for the offence for a term which may extend to one-fourth part of the longest term of imprisonment provided for the offence, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section penalises the offer etc. of such gratification or restoration of property in consideration of screening etc. an offender. The section states that whoever either gives or causes any gratification to any person, or offers or agrees to give or cause any gratification to any person, or either restores or causes the restoration of any property to any person, in consideration of a concealment of an offence by that person, or screening any person from legal punishment for any offence by him, or not proceeding against any person for the purpose of bringing him to legal punishment by him, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine where the offence is punishable with death, and shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to three years, and shall also be liable to fine where the offence is punishable with imprisonment for life or with imprisonment extending up to ten years; and shall be punished with imprisonment of that description as provided for the offence for a term extending up to one-fourth part of the maximum terms of imprisonment provided for the offence, or with fine, or with both where the offence is punishable with imprisonment of up to 10 years

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 215 - Taking gift to help to recover stolen property, etc.

Whoever takes or agrees or consents to take any gratification under pretence or on account of helping any person to recover any movable property of which he shall have been deprived by any offence
punishable under this Code, shall, unless he uses all means in his power to cause the offender to be apprehended and convicted of the offence, be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section punishes taking etc. of gratification on the pretext of helping a person to get back his property of which he was deprived previously, without apprehending the criminal who was responsible for the deprivation. There are professional truckers who are in league with criminals who specialise in depriving others of movable properties by committing theft and other offences. They then charge money on the understanding that the property would be restored.
This section takes care of such professionals also. The section states that whoever either takes, or agrees to take, or consents to take, any gratification, either under pretense or on account, of helping any person to recover any movable property of which he shall have been deprived by the commission of any offence under the Indian Penal Code, shall be punished, unless he uses all means in his power to cause the offender to be apprehended and convicted of the offence, with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending upto 2 years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 216 - Harbouring offender who has escaped from custody or whose apprehension has been ordered.

Whenever any person convicted of or charged with an offence, being in lawful custody for that offence, escapes from such custody, or whenever a public servant, in the exercise of the lawful powers of such public servant, orders a certain person to be apprehended for an offence, whoever, knowing of such escape or order for apprehension, harbours or conceals that person with the intention of preventing him from being apprehended, shall be punished in the manner following, that is to say,
if a capital offence;--if the offence for which the person was in custody or is ordered to be apprehended is punishable with death, he shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine;
if punishable with imprisonment for life, or with imprisonment.- if the offence is punishable with 3*[imprisonment for life] or imprisonment for ten years, he shall be punished with imprisonment ofeither description for a term which may extend to three years, with orwithout fine;
and if the offence is punishable with imprisonment which mayextend to one year and not to ten years, he shall be punished with imprisonment of the description provided for the offence for a termwhich may extend to one-fourth part of the longest term of the imprisonment provided for such offence or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section penalises harbouring or concealing of an offender who has escaped from custody or whose apprehension has been ordered, and in a way it is an aggravated form of the offence dealt with under section 212 of the Code. The section says that whenever any person is either convicted of an offence or is charged with an offence, and is in lawful custody for that offence, and then escapes from such custody, or whenever a public servant while exercising lawful powers as such public servant orders the apprehension of a person, whoever with knowledge about such escape or such order for apprehension either harbours or conceals that person with the intention of preventing him from being apprehended, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 7 years, and shall also be liable to fine, if the offence for which that person was in custody or was ordered to be apprehended is punishable with death; and shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 3 years, with or without fine, if the offence is punishable with imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years; and shall be punished with imprisonment for the description provided for the offence for a term extending up to one-fourth part of the maximum term of imprisonment provided for such offence, if the offence is punishable with imprisonment extending up to one year and not up to 10 years.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 216A - Penalty for harbouring robbers or dacoits.

Whoever,knowing or having reason to believe that any persons are about to commit or have recently committed robbery or dacoity, harbours them or any of them, with the intention of facilitating the commission of such robbery or dacoity or of screening them or any of them from punishment, shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section was inserted by the Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1894 and it supplements sections 212 and 216 by providing penalty for harbouring robbers or dacoits. The section says that whoever either has knowledge or has reason to believe that any persons are either about to commit robbery or dacoity or have recently committed robbery of dacoity, and harbours them or any of them with the intention of facilitating the commission of such robbery or dacoity or of screening them or any of them from punishment, shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 7 years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 216B - Definition of harbour

[Rep. by the Indian penal Code (Amendment) Act, 1942 (8 of 1942), sec. 3.]

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

[Repealed by the Indian penal Code (Amendment) Act, 1942 (8 of 1942), sec. 3.]

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 217 - Public servant disobeying direction of law with intent to save person from punishment or property from forfeiture.

Whoever, being a public servant, knowingly disobeys any direction of the law as to the way in which he is to conduct himself as such public servant, intending thereby to save, or knowing it to be likely that he will thereby save, any person from legal punishment, or subject him to a less punishment than that to which he is liable, or with intent to save, or knowing that he is likely thereby to save, any property from forfeiture or any charge to which it is liable by law, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Section 217 deals with the offence on the part of a public servant who disobeys direction of law with intent to save a person from punishment or property from forfeiture. It says that whoever in his capacity as a public servant with knowledge does not obey any direction of the law as to the way in which he must conduct himself as such public servant, with the intention thereby to save, or with the knowledge that it is likely that he will thereby save, any person from legal punishment, or subject him to lesser punishment than what he is liable, or with the abovementioned intention or knowledge thereby to save, any property from forfeiture or any charge to which it is liable by law, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 2 years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 218 - Public servant framing incorrect record or writing with intent to save person from punishment or property from forfeiture.

Whoever, being a public servant, and being as such public servant, charged with the preparation of any record or other writing, frames that record or writing in a manner which he knows to be incorrect, with intent to cause, or knowing it to be likely that he will thereby cause, loss or injury to the public or to any person, or with intent thereby to save, or knowing it to be likely that he will thereby save, any person from legal punishment, or with intent to save, or knowing that he is likely thereby to save, any property from forfeiture or other charge to which it is liable by law, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section punishes a public servant framing an incorrect record or writing with intent to save a person from punishment or property from forfeiture or other charges to which it is liable. It says that whoever, being a public servant, and being as such, charged with the preparation of either any record or other writing, frames the same in such a manner about which he has knowledge that the same is incorrect, with the intention to cause or with the knowledge that it is likely that he will thereby cause, either loss or injury to the public or to any person, or with the intention to save or knowledge that he is likely thereby to save any person from legal punishment, or with the same intention or knowledge to save any property from forfeiture or other charge to which it is liable by law, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 3 years, or with fine, or with both

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 219 - Public servant in judicial proceeding corruptly making report, etc., contrary to law

Whoever, being a public servant, corruptly or maliciously makes or pronounces in any stage of a judicial proceeding, any report, order, verdict, or decision which he knows to be contrary to law, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section states that whoever, being a public servant, either corruptly or maliciously makes or pronounces any report, order, verdict, or decision in any stage of judicial proceeding about which he has knowledge that the same is contrary to law, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 7 years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 220 - Commitment for trial or confinement by person having authority who knows that he is acting contrary to law.

Whoever, beingin any office which gives him legal authority to commit persons for trial or to confinement, or to keep persons in confinement, corruptly or maliciously commits any person for trial or to confinement, or keeps any person in confinement, in the exercise of that authority, knowing that in so doing he is acting contrary to law, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section punishes one who has authority to commit persons for trial or to confinement and knows that he is acting contrary to law. The section says that whoever, holding any office which empowers him legally to either commit persons for trial or to confinement, or to keep persons in confinement, commits any person for trial or confinement either corruptly or maliciously, or keeps any person in confinement corruptly or maliciously while exercising that legal authority, with the knowledge that in so doing he is acting contrary to law, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 7 years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 221 - Intentional omission to apprehend on the part of public servant bound to apprehend

Whoever, being a pubic servant, legally bound as such public servant to apprehend or to keep in confinement any person charged with or liable to be apprehended for an offence, intentionally omits to apprehend such person, or intentionally suffers such person to escape, or intentionally aids such person in escaping or attempting to escape from such confinement, shall be punished as follows, that is to say:-
with imprisonment of either description for a term which mayextend to seven years, with or without fine, if the person in confinement, or who ought to have been apprehended, was charged with, or liable to be apprehended for, an offence punishable with death; or
with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, with or without fine, if the person in confinement, or who ought to have been apprehended, was charged with, or liable to be apprehended for, an offence punishable with [imprisonment for life] or imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years; or                                                             with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, with or without fine, if the person in confinement, or who ought to have been apprehended, was charged with, or liable to be apprehended for, an offence punishable with imprisonment for a term less than ten years.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section penalises a public servant who intentionally omits to apprehend or keep in confinement any person even though he is legally bound to do so. It says that whoever, being a public servant, legally bound as such either to apprehend, or to keep in confinement any person who is either charged with an offence or who is liable to be apprehended for an offence, either intentionally omits to apprehend such person, or intentionally suffers such persons to escape, or intentionally aids such person in escaping or attempting to escape from such confinement, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 7 years, with or without fine, if such person in confinement, or who ought to have been charged with or liable to be apprehended for, an offence punishable with death; or with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 3 years, with or without fine with respect to a person as stated above for an offence punishable with imprisonment for life or imprisonment extending up to 10 years; or with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to two years, with or without fine, with respect to a person as stated above for an offence punishable with imprisonment for a term less than 10 years.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 222 - Intentional omission to apprehend on the part of public servant bound to apprehend person under sentence or lawfully committed

Whoever, being a public servant, legally bound as such public servant to apprehend or to keep in confinement any person under sentence of a Court of Justice for any offence [or lawfully committed to custody], intentionally omits to apprehend such person, or intentionally suffers such person to escape or intentionally aids such person in escaping or attempting to escape from such confinement, shall be punished as follows, that is to say:-
with [imprisonment for life] or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to fourteen years, with or without fine, if the person in confinement, or who ought to have been apprehended, is under sentence of death; or
with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, with or without fine, if the person in confinement, or who, ought to have been apprehended, is subject, by a sentence of a Court of Justice, or by virtue of a commutation of such sentence, to [imprisonment for life] imprisonment for a term of ten years or upwards; or
with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both, if the person in confinement, or who ought to have been apprehended is subject, by a sentence of a Court of Justice, to imprisonment for a term not extending to ten years [or if the person was lawfully committed to custody].

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section penalises a public servant who is bound to apprehend a person under a sentence or who has been lawfully committed but intentionally omits to do the same. It says that whoever, being a public servant, legally bound as such either to apprehend or to keep in confinement any person who has been sentenced by a court of justice for any offence or lawfully committed to custody, either intentionally omits to apprehend him, or intentionally suffers him to escape, or intentionally aids him in escaping or attempting to escape from such confinement, shall be punished with either imprisonment for life or with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 14 years, with or without fine, if such person as stated above is under sentence of death; or with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 7 years, with or without fine, if such person as stated above is by virtue of a commutation of such sentence to imprisonment for life, or to imprisonment for a term of 10 or more years; or with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 3 years, or with fine, or with both, if such person is subject to imprisonment for a term not extending to 10 years or if he was lawfully committed to custody.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 223 - Escape from confinement or custody negligently suffered by public servant

Whoever, being a public servant legally bound as such public servant to keep in confinement any person charged with or convicted of any offence [or lawfully committed to custody], negligently suffers such person to escape from confinement, shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section punishes a public servant who negligently suffers a person to escape from confinement or custody. It says that whoever, being a public servant legally bound as such either to keep in confinement any person charged with or convicted of an offence or lawfully committed to custody, negligently suffers such person to escape from confinement, shall be punished with imprisonment for a term extending up to 2 years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 224 - Resistance or obstruction by a person to his lawful apprehension

Whoever intentionally offers any resistance or illegal obstruction to the lawful apprehension of himself for any offence with which he is charged or of which he has been convicted, or escapes or attempts to escape from any custody in which he is lawfully detained for any such offence, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Intentional offer of resistance or illegal obstruction to the lawful apprehension of oneself has been made a punishable offence under this section. The section says that whoever intentionally offers either any resistance or illegal obstruction to the lawful apprehension of himself for any offence with which either he is charged or for which he has been convicted, or either any resistance or illegal obstruction to the lawful apprehension of himself for any offence with which either he is charged or for which he has been detained lawfully for any such offence, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 2 years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 225B - Resistant or obstruction to lawful apprehension, or escape or rescue in cases not otherwise provided for

Whoever, in any case not provided for in section 224 or section 225 or in any other law for the time being in force, intentionally offers any resistance or illegal obstruction to the lawful apprehension of himself or of any other person, or escapes or attempts to escape from any custody in which he is lawfully detained, or rescues or attempts to rescue any other person from any custody in which that person is lawfully detained, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine, or with both.]

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section was also added, like the preceding one, by the Indian Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 1886. Resistance or obstruction to lawful apprehension, or escape or rescue in cases not otherwise provided for have been made punishable under this section. It states that whoever, in any case not covered under sections 224 or 225 of the Indian Penal Code or in any other law in existence at the time, intentionally resists or illegally obstructs intentionally to the lawful apprehension of either himself or of any other person, or either escapes or attempts to escape from any custody in which that person is detained lawfully, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 6 months, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 225 - Resistance or obstruction to lawful apprehension of another person

Whoever intentionally offers any resistance or illegal
obstruction to the lawful apprehension of any other person for an offence, or rescues or attempts to rescue any other person from any custody in which that person is lawfully detained for an offence, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both;
or, if the person to be apprehended, or the person rescued or attempted to be rescued, is charged with or liable to be apprehended for an offence punishable with [imprisonment for life] or imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine;
or, if the person to be apprehended or rescued, or attempted to be rescued, is charged with or liable to be apprehended for an offence punishable with death, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine;
or, if the person to be apprehended or rescued, or attempted to be rescued, is liable under the sentence of a Court of Justice, or by virtue of a commutation of such a sentence, to [imprisonment for life], or imprisonment, for a term of ten years or upwards, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine;
or, if the person to be apprehended or rescued, or attempted to be rescued, is under sentence of death, shall be punished with [imprisonment for life] or imprisonment of either description for a term not exceeding ten years, and shall also be liable to fine

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Intentional offering of resistance or obstruction to lawful apprehension of an offender or rescuing or attempting to rescue a person from lawful custody has been made an offence under this section. The section states that whoever either intentionally offers any resistance or illegal obstruction to the lawful apprehension of any other person for an offence, or rescues or attempts to rescue any other person from any such custody to which he has been detained lawfully for any offence, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 2 years, or with fine, or with both; or, if the offence with respect to the person as described above is punishable with imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for a term extending up to 10 years, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 3 years, and shall also be liable to fine; or, if the offence with respect to the person as described above is punishable with death, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 7 years, and shall also be liable to fine; or, if the offence with respect to the person as described above is liable under the sentence to a court of justice, or by virtue of a commutation of such a sentence, to imprisonment for life, or to imprisonment for a term of 10 years or more, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 7 years, and shall also be liable to fine; or, if such a person as stated above is under sentence of death, shall be punished with imprisonment for life or simple imprisonment for a term up to 10 years, and shall also be liable for fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 225A - Omission to apprehend, or sufferance of escape, on part of public servant, in cases not otherwise, provided for

Whoever, being a public servant legally bound as such public servant to apprehend, or to keep in confinement, any person in any case not provided for in section 221, section 222 or section 223, or in any other law for the time being in force, omits to apprehend that person or suffers him to escape from confinement, shall be punished-
(a) if he does so intentionally, with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine or with both; and
(b) if he does so negligently, with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section was added by the Indian Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 1886 in place of the old section 225-A which had been inserted in the Code by the Indian Penal Code (Amendment) Act, 1870. The section penalises omission on the part of a public servant to apprehend, or sufferance of escape on his part, in cases not otherwise provided for. It says that whoever, being a public servant legally bound as such either to apprehend, or to keep in confinement, any person in any case not provided for in any of the sections 221, 222 or 223 of the Code, or in any other law in existence at the time, either omits to apprehend him, or suffers him to escape from confinement, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to three years, or with fine, or with both if he does so intentionally, and with simple imprisonment for a term extending up to 2 years, or with fine, or with both if he does so negligently.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 226 - Unlawful return from transportation

Rep. by the Code of Criminal Procedure (Amendment) Act, 1955 (26 of 1955), s. 117 and Sch. (w.e.f. 1-1-1956).

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Repealed by the Code of Criminal Procedure (Amendment) Act, 1955 (26 of 1955), s. 117 and Sch. (w.e.f. 1-1-1956).

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 227 - Violation of condition of remission of punishment

Whoever, having accepted any conditional remission of punishment, knowingly violates any condition on which such remission was granted, shall be punished with the punishment to which he was originally sentenced, if he has already suffered no part of that punishment, and if he has suffered any part of that punishment, then with so much of that punishment as he has not already suffered.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Remission is the shortening of convict’s prison sentence on account of his good behaviour. Such remission is sometimes granted on certain conditions. If a person who has come out on conditional remission violates knowingly any of such conditions, then it amounts to an offence under Section 227. Such person shall be punishable with the punishment to which he was originally sentenced. In other words, the remission given is withdrawn and the person will be required to serve the full sentence.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 228 - Intentional insult or interruption to public servant sitting in judicial proceeding

Whoever intentionally offers any insult, or causes any interruption to any public servant, while such public servant is sitting in any stage of a judicial proceeding, shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Intentionally insulting or interrupting a public servant sitting in a judicial proceeding has been made a punishable offence under this section. The section says that whoever offers any insult to any public servant intentionally, or causes any interruption to him, during the course when such public servant is sitting in any stage of a judicial proceeding, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 6 months, or with fine extending up to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 228A - Disclosure of identity of the victim of certain offences, etc

(1) Whoever prints or publishes the name or any matter which may make known the identity of any person against whom an offence under section 376, section 376A, section 376B, section 376C or section 376D is alleged or found to have been committed (hereafter in this section referred to as the victim) shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years and shall also be liable to fine.
(2) Nothing in sub-section (1) extends to any printing or publication of the name or any matter which may make known the identity of the victim if such printing or publication is-
(a) by or under the order in writing of the officer-incharge of the police station or the police officer making the
investigation into such offence acting in good faith for the purposes of such investigation; or
(b) by, or with the authorisation in writing of, the victim; or
(c) where the victim is dead or minor or of unsound mind, by, or with the authorisation in writing of, the next-of-kin of the victim: Provided that no such authorisation shall be given by the next of kin to anybody other than the chairman or the secretary, by whatever name called, of any recognised welfare institution or organisation.
Explanation.-For the purposes of this sub-section, "recognised welfare institution or organisation" means a social welfare institution or organisation recognised in this behalf by the Central or State Government.
(3) Whoever prints or publishes any matter in relation to any proceeding before a court with respect to an offence referred to in sub-section (1) without the previous permission of such court shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years and shall also be liable to fine.
Explanation.-The printing or publication of the judgment of any High Court or the Supreme Court does not amount to an offence within the meaning of this section.]

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The printing or publication of the judgment of any High Court or the Supreme Court does not amount to an offence within the meaning of this Section.”
Section 228A has been introduced by the Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1983 to prevent social victimisation or ostracism of the victim of a sexual offence.
Section 228 protects the victim from embarrassment due to the glare or damaging publicity and as such prohibits printing or publishing the name or any matter which may make known the identity of any person against whom an offence under the newly amended or added provisions, viz., S. 376 (punishment for rape) S. 376-A (intercourse by a man with his wife during separation), S. 376-B (intercourse by public servant with a woman in his custody), S. 376-C (intercourse by superintendent of jail remand home, etc) and S. 376-D (intercourse by any member of the management or staff of a hospital with any woman in that hospital) is alleged or found to have been committed.
There will be no ban on publication if the victim consents to disclose her identity or other facts which might disclose her name and identity.
The printing or publication of the proceeding before a court with reference to an offence referred to in sub-section (1) of Section 228- A, with the previous permission of such court or the printing or publication of the judgment of any High Court or the Supreme Court is also exempt from the operation of the provisions of Section 228-A.
The provisions of Section 228-A will not be applicable to any printing or publication of the name or any matter which may make known the identity of the victim if such printing or publication is under the order in writing of the officer-in-charge of the police station making the investigation into such offence acting in good faith for the purpose of such investigation, or where the victim is dead or minor or of unsound mind, with the authorisation in writing of the next of kin of the victim.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 229 - Personation of a juror or assessor

Whoever, by personation or otherwise, shall intentionally cause, or knowingly suffer himself to be returned, empanelled or sworn as a juryman or assessor in any case in which he knows that he is not entitled by law to be so returned, empanelled or sworn, or knowing himself to have been so returned, empanelled or sworn contrary to law, shall voluntarily serve on such jury or as such assessor, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Personation of a juror or assessor has been made an offence under this section. The section states that whoever, either by personation or otherwise, shall intentionally cause, or knowingly suffer himself to be either returned or empanelled or sworn as a juryman or assessor in any case in which he has knowledge that the law does not entitle him to be so returned, empanelled or sworn, or with knowledge that he has been so returned, empanelled or sworn against the law, shall voluntarily serve as such a juror or assessor, as the case may be, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 2 years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 229A - Failure by person released on bail or bond to appear in Court

Whoever, having been charged with an offence and released on bail or on bond without sureties, fails without sufficient cause (the burden of proving which shall lie upon him), to appear in Court in accordance with the terms of the bail or bond, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both. Explanation.—The punishment under this section is—
(a) in addition to the punishment to which the offender would be liable on a conviction for the offence with which he has been charged; and
(b) without prejudice to the power of the Court to order forfeiture of the bond.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section makes failure by person released on bail or bond to appear in Court a punishable offence. This was inserted by the Code of Criminal Procedure (Amendment) Act, 2005 vide Section 44 (c). It says that whoever, having been charged with an offence and released either on bail or on bond without sureties, fails without sufficient cause, the burden of proving which shall lie upon him, to appear in Court in accordance with the terms of the bail or bond, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending upto 1 year, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 230 - "Coin" defined

Coin is metal used for the time being as money, and stamped and issued by the authority of some State or Sovereign Power in order to be so used.

Indian coin is metal stamped and issued by the authority of the Government of India in order to be used as money; and metal which has been so stamped and issued shall continue to be Indian coin for the purposes of this Chapter, notwithstanding that it may have ceased to be used as money.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Coin is a metal used for time being as money and stamped and issued by the authority of some State or Sovereign Power in order to be so used.

Indian coin is metal stamped and issued by the authority of the Government of India in order to be used as money and metal which has been so stamped and issued shall continue to be Indian coin for the purposes of this Chapter apart from the fact that it may have ceased to be used as money.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 231 - Counterfeiting coin

Whoever counterfeits or knowingly performs any part of the process of counterfeiting coin, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Anyone who forges or knowingly performs the part of process of forgery then such an offender shall be punished with an imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 232 - Counterfeiting Indian coin

Whoever counterfeits, or knowingly performs any part of the process of counterfeiting [Indian coin], shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Anyone who forges or knowingly performs the part of process of forging any Indian coin then such an offender shall be punished with an imprisonment for life or for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to pay fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 233 - Making or selling instrument for counterfeiting coin

Whoever makes or mends, or performs any part of the process of making or mending, or buys, sells or disposes of, any die or instrument, for the purpose of being used, or knowing or having reason to believe that it is intended to be used, for the purpose of counterfeiting coin, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extended to three years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whosoever makes or mends, or performs any part of the process of making or mending, or  buys, sells or disposes of, any die or instrument, for the purpose of being used, or knowing or having reason to believe that it is intended to be used, for the purpose of counterfeiting coin,then such an offender shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extended to three years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 234 - Making or selling instrument for counterfeiting Indian coin

Whoever makes or mends, or performs any part of the proc­ess of making or mending, or buys, sells or disposes of, any die or instrument, for the purpose of being used, or knowing or having reason to believe that it is intended to be used, for the purpose of counterfeiting 1[Indian coin], shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

  • Anyone who makes or mends,or
  • performs any part of the proc­ess of making or mending, or
  • buys, sells or disposes of, any die or instrument,
  • for the purpose of such instrument being used, or knowing or
  • having reason to believe that it is intended to be used, for the purpose of forging [Indian coin]

Then such an offender shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 235 - Possession of instrument or material for the purpose of using the same for counterfeiting coin

Whoever is in possession of any instrument or material, for the purpose of using the same for counterfeiting coin, or knowing or having reason to believe that the same is intended to be used for that purpose, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine;

Indian Coin : If the Coin to be counterfeited  is an  [Indian coin], shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

  • Anyone who is in possession of any instrument or material, for the purpose of using the same for forging coin or
  • knowing or having reason to believe that the same is intended to be used for that purpose
  • Then such a person shall be punished with imprisonment for a term that may extend up to three years and shall also be liable to pay fine.

If an Indian coin is forged then punishment will be imprisonment for a term that may extend up to ten years and hall also be liable to pay fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 236 - Abetting in India the counterfeiting out of India of coin

Whoever, being within [India] abets the counterfeiting of coin out of [India] shall be punished in the same manner as if he abetted the counterfeiting of such coin within [India].

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Anyone who abets(connives) the forging of coin within India for the actual forging to take place outside of India then the offender shall be punished in the same manner as if has abetted the forging of the coin within India.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 237 - Import or export of counterfeit coin

Whoever imports into[India], or exports therefrom, any counterfeit coin, knowingly or having reason to believe that the same is counterfeit, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Import or export of counterfeit coin has been made an offence under this section. According to the section, whoever imports into India, or exports from India, any counterfeit coin either with the knowledge or having reason to believe that the coin is counterfeit, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to three years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 238 - Import or export of counterfeits of the Indian coin

Whoever imports into [India], or exports therefrom, any counterfeit coin, which he knows or has reason to believe to be a counterfeit of [Indian coin], shall be punished with [Imprisonment for life], or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section punishes import or export of counterfeits of the Indian coin. It says that whoever imports into India, or exports from India, any counterfeit coin which he either knows to be a counterfeit of Indian coin or has reason to believe to be counterfeit of Indian coin, shall be punished with imprisonment for life, or with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 239 - Delivery of coin possessed with knowledge that it is counterfeit

Whoever, having any counterfeit coin, which at the time when he became possessed of it, he knew to be counterfeit, fraudulently or with intent that fraud may be committed, delivers the same to any persons or attempts to induce any person to receive it, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

According to the section, whoever, in possession of any counterfeit coin, about which he had knowledge at the time he became possessed of it that it was counterfeit, either fraudulently or with the intention that fraud may be committed, either delivers the same to any person or attempts to induce any person to receive it, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to five years, and shall also be liable to fine

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 240 - Delivery of Indian coin, possessed with knowledge that it is counterfeit

Whoever having any counterfeit coin, which is a counterfeit of [Indian coin], and which, at the time when he became possessed of it, he knew to be a counterfeit of [Indian coin], fraudulently or with intent that fraud may be committed, delivers the same to any person, or attempts to induce any person to receive it, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section states that whoever has any such counterfeit coin which is a counterfeit of Indian coin, and about which at the time he became possessed of it he had knowledge that it was a counterfeit of Indian coin, with intention to defraud or with intention that fraud may be committed, either delivers the same to any person, or attempt to induce any person to receive it, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 241 - Delivery of coin as genuine, which, when first possessed, the deliverer did not know to be counterfeit

Whoever delivers to any other person as genuine, or attempts to induce any other person to receive as genuine, any counterfeit coin which he knows to be counterfeit, but which he did not know to be counterfeit at the time when he took it into his possession, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine to an amount which may extend to ten times the value of the coin counterfeited, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whoever either delivers a counterfeit coin to anyone as genuine, about which he has knowledge that it is counterfeit, but which he did not know to be counterfeit at the time he took it in his possession, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to two years, or with fine extending up to the worth of ten times the value of the coin counterfeited, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 242 - Possession of counterfeit coin by person who knew it to be counterfeit when he became possessed thereof

Whoever, fraudulently or with intent that fraud may be committed, is in possession of counterfeit coin, having known at the time when he became possessed thereof that such coin was counterfeit, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section penalizes possession of counterfeit coin by a person who knew it to be counterfeit when he became possessed thereof. Mere preparation to commit a crime has been made an offence under this section. The section states that whoever, either fraudulently or with the intention that fraud may be committed, has within his possession counterfeit coin, having known at the time when it came into his possession that the coin was counterfeit, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to three years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 243 - Possession of Indian coin by person who knew it to be counterfeit when he became possessed thereof.

Whoever, fraudulently or with intent that fraud may be committed, is in possession of counterfeit coin, which is a counterfeit of [Indian coin], having known at the time when he became possessed of it that it was counterfeit, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

While the preceding section punishes possession of a counterfeit coin, this section penalizes possession of a counterfeit of an Indian coin with the knowledge at the time the accused possessed the same that it was counterfeit.

The section states that whoever, either fraudulently or with the intention that fraud may be committed, has in his possession a counterfeit coin which is a counterfeit of Indian coin, having, known at the time it came to his possession that it was counterfeit, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 244 - Person employed in mint causing coin to be of different weight or composition from that fixed by law

Whoever, being employed in any mint lawfully established in [India], does any act, or omits what he is legally bound to do, with the intention of causing any coin issued from that mint to be of a different weight or composition from the weight or composition fixed by law, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Person employed in a mint causing coin to be of different weight or composition from that fixed by law has been made punishable under this section. The section says that whoever, being an employee in a mint established by law in India, either does any act, or omits to do what he is legally bound to do, with the intention of causing any coin issued from that mint to be of either a different weight or a different composition from the weight or composition fixed by law, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

The accused must be employed in any mint lawfully established in India. He must either do any act or omit to do what he is legally bound to do. He must have the intention of causing any coin issued from that mint to be of a different weight or different composition from the weight or composition fixed by the law. The weights and compositions of coins have been fixed by the law and the accused, being an employee in a government mint, must cause the same to be violated.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 245 - Unlawfully taking coining instrument from mint

Whoever, without lawful authority, takes out of any mint, lawfully established in [India], any coining tool or instrument, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section states that whoever, without having authority under law, takes out of any mint, which is lawfully established in India, either any coining tool or instrument, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 246 - Fraudulently or dishonestly diminishing weight or altering composition of coin

Whoever, fraudulently or dishonestly performs on any coin any operation which diminishes the weight or alters the composition of that coin, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section punishes fraudulent or dishonest diminishing of weight or altering of composition of coin. The section says that whoever, either fraudulently or dishonestly, performs any operation on any coin which either diminishes its weight or alters its composition, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to three years, and shall also be liable to fine

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 247 - Fraudulently or dishonestly diminishing weight or altering composition of Indian coin

Whoever fraudulently or dishonestly performs on [any Indian coin] any operation which diminishes the weight or alters the composition of that coin, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

While the preceding section deals with diminishing or altering composition of coin, this section penalizes fraudulently or dishonestly diminishing weight or altering composition of Indian coin. The section says that whoever, either fraudulently or dishonestly, performs any operation on any Indian coin which either diminishes its weight or alters its composition, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 248 - Altering appearance of coin with intent that it shall pass as coin of different description

Whoever performs on any coin any operation which alters the appearance of that coin, with the intention that the said coin shall pass as a coin of a different description, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Alternation of the appearance of a coin with the intention that it shall pass as coin of a different description has been made an offence under this section. According to the section, whoever performs any operation on any coin resulting into alteration in the appearance of that coin, with the intention that such coin shall pass as a coin of a different description, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to three years, and shall also be liable to pay fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 249 - Altering appearance of Indian coin with intent that it shall pass as coin of different description

Whoever performs on [any Indian coin] any operation which alters the appearance of that coin, with the intention that the said coin shall pass as a coin of a different description, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section says that whoever performs any operation on any Indian coin resulting into alteration in its appearance, with the intention the said coin shall pass as coin of a different description, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 250 - Delivery of coin possessed with knowledge that it is altered

Whoever, having coin in his possession with respect to which the offence defined in section 246 or 248 has been committed, and having known at the time when he became possessed of such coin that such offence had been committed with respect to it, fraudulently or with intent that fraud may be committed, delivers such coin to any other person, or attempts to induce any other person to receive the same, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section says that whoever, having in this possession such a coin with respect to which the offence as defined under section 246 or 248 of the Code has been committed, and having had knowledge at the time when the coin came to his possession that such an offence had been committed with respect to it, fraudulently or with the intention that fraud may be committed, either delivers such coin to any other person, or attempts to induce any other person to receive the same, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to five years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 251 - Delivery of Indian coin, possessed with knowledge that it is altered

Whoever, having coin in his possession with respect to which the offence defined in section 247 or 249 has been committed, and having known at the time when he became possessed of such coin that such offence had been committed with respect to it, fraudulently or with intent that fraud may be committed, delivers such coin to any other person, or attempts to induce any other person to receive the same, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section makes it an offence to deliver an Indian coin possessed with knowledge that it has been altered. The section states that whoever, having such a coin in his possession with respect to which the offence as defined under section 247 or 249 of the Code has been committed, and having had knowledge at the time it came into his possession that such offence had been committed with respect to it, with intention to defraud or with intention that fraud may be committed, either delivers such coin to any other person, or attempts to induce any other person to receive the same, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 252 - Possession of coin by person who knew it to be altered when he became possessed thereof

Whoever fraudulently or with intent that fraud may be committed, is in possession of coin with respect to which the offence defined in either of the sections 246 or 248 has been committed having known at the time of becoming possessed thereof that such offence had been committed with respect to such coin, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

It states that whoever, either fraudulently or with the intention that fraud may be committed, possesses a coin with respect to which an offence as defined under section 246 or 248 has been committed, having knowledge at the time when it came into his possession that such offence had been committed with respect to it, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to three years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 253 - Possession of Indian coin by person who knew it to be altered when he became possessed thereof

Whoever fraudulently or with intent that fraud may be committed, is in possession of coin with respect to which the offence defined in either of the sections 247 or 249 has been committed having known at the time of becoming possessed thereof, that such offence had been committed with respect to such coin, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section states that whoever, either fraudulently or with intention that fraud may be committed, possesses a coin with respect to which an offence under section 247 or 249 had been committed, with the knowledge at the time it came to his possession that such an offence had been committed with respect to it, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to five years, and shall be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 254 - Delivery of coin as genuine which, when first possessed, the deliverer did not know to be altered

Whoever delivers to any other person as genuine or as a coin of a different description from what it is, or attempts to induce any person to receive as genuine, or as a different coin from what it is, any coin in respect of which he knows that any such operation as that mentioned in sections 246, 247, 248 or 249 has been performed, but in respect of which he did not, at the time when he took it into his possession, know that such operation had been performed, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years or with fine to an amount which may extend to ten times the value of the coin for which the altered coin is passed, or attempted to be passed.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

It states that whoever, either delivers to another person as genuine or as a coin of different description from what it really is, or attempts to induce another person to receive as genuine or as a different coin from what it really is, any coin in respect to which he has knowledge that any such operation as mentioned in section 246, 247, 248 or 249 of the Code has been performed, but in respect of which he did not have knowledge, when he took the same into his possession, that such operation had been performed, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to two years, or with fine extending up to ten times the value of the coin for which the altered coin is passed, or attempted to be passed

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 255 - Counterfeiting Government stamp

Whoever counterfeits, or knowingly performs any part of the process of counterfeiting, any stamp issued by Government for the purpose of revenue shall be punished with [imprisonment for life] or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section says that whoever either counterfeits, or with knowledge performs any part of the process of counterfeiting, any stamp issued by the government for the purpose of revenue, shall be punished with imprisonment for a term extending up to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 256 - Having possession of instrument or material for Counterfeiting Government stamp

Whoever has in his possession any instrument or material for the purpose of being used, or knowing or having reason to believe that it is intended to be used, for the purpose of counterfeiting any stamp issued by Government for the purpose of revenue, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section penalizes possession of instruments or material for the purpose of counterfeiting government stamps. Preparation to commit a crime has been made an offence under this section. The section states that whoever possesses any instrument or material for the purpose of being used, or having knowledge or having reason to believe that it is intended to be used, for the purpose of counterfeiting any government stamp issued for the purpose of revenue, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 257 - Making or selling instrument for counterfeiting Government stamp

Whoever makes or performs any part of the process of making, or buys, or sells, or disposes of, any instrument for the purpose of being used, or knowing or having reason to believe that it is intended to be used, for the purpose of counterfeiting any stamp issued by Government for the purpose of revenue, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section penalizes preparation to commit a crime, it says that whoever either makes or performs any part of the process of making, or buys, or sells, or disposes of, any instrument for the purpose of being used for counterfeiting any government stamp issued for revenue, or either knowing or having reason to believe that the intention of the same is to use it for the purpose of counterfeiting any such stamp, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 258 - Sale of counterfeit Government stamp

Whoever sells, or offers for sale, any stamp which he knows or has reason to believe to be a counterfeit of any stamp issued by Government for the purpose of revenue, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Sale of counterfeit government stamp has been made an offence under this section. The section says that whoever either sells, or offers for sale, any stamp which he either knows or has reason to believe to be a counterfeit of any government stamp issued for the purpose of revenue, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 259 - Having possession of counterfeit Government stamp

Whoever has in his possession any stamp which he knows to be a counterfeit of any stamp issued by Government for the purpose of revenue, intending to use, or dispose of the same as a genuine stamp, or in order that it may be used as a genuine stamp, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section states that whoever possesses any stamp with the knowledge that it is a counterfeit of any stamp issued by the government for the purpose of revenue, with the intention either to use it, or dispose it of, as a genuine stamp, or in order that it may be used as a genuine stamp, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 260 - Using as genuine a Government stamp known to be counterfeit

Whoever uses as genuine any stamp, knowing it to be a counterfeit of any stamp issued by Government for the purpose of revenue, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section prohibits using a forged government stamp as genuine. It says that whoever uses any stamp as a genuine stamp, with the knowledge that it is a counterfeit of any government stamp issued for the purpose of revenue, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to seven years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 261 - Effacing writing from substance bearing Government stamp, or removing from document a stamp used for it, with intent to cause loss to Government

Whoever, fraudulently or with intent to cause loss to the Government, removes or effaces from any substance, bearing any stamp issued by Government for the purpose of revenue, any writing or document for which such stamp has been used, or removes from any writing or document a stamp which has been used for such writing or document, in order that such stamp may be used for a different writing or document, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section states that whoever, with the intention of defrauding or causing loss to the government, either removes or effaces from any substance bearing any government stamp issued for the purpose of revenue, any writing or document for which such stamp has been used, or removes from any writing or document a stamp which has been used for such writing or document, in order that the same may be used for another writing or document, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to three years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 262 - Using Government stamp known to have been before used

Whoever, fraudulently or with intent to cause loss to the Government, uses for any purpose a stamp issued by Government for the purpose of revenue, which he knows to have been before used, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section says that whoever, either with intent to defraud or with the intention of causing loss to the government, uses for any purpose a government stamp issued for the purpose of revenue, about which he has knowledge that it has been before used, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 263 - Erasure of mark denoting that stamp has been used

Whoever, fraudulently or with intent to cause loss to Government, erases or removes from a stamp issued by Government for the purpose of revenue, any mark, put or impressed upon such stamp for the purpose of denoting that the same has been used, or knowingly has in his possession or sells or disposes of any such stamp from which such mark has been erased or removed, or sells or disposes of any such stamp which he knows to have been used, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section states that whoever, intending to defraud or to cause loss to the government, either erases or removes from a government stamp issued for the purpose of revenue, any mark which has been put or impressed upon that stamp with a view to show that the stamp has been used, or with knowledge either has such a stamp in his possession or sells or disposes of the same from which such mark has been erased or removed, or sells or disposes of any such stamp about which he has knowledge that it has been used, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 263A - Prohibition of fictitious stamps

(1) Whoever-

(a) makes, knowingly utters, deals in or sells any fictitious stamp, or knowingly uses for any postal purpose any fictitious stamp, or

(b) has in his possession, without lawful excuse, any fictitious stamp, or

(c) makes or, without lawful excuse, has in his possession any die, plate, instrument or materials for making any fictitious stamp, shall be punished with fine which may extend to two hundred rupees.

(2) Any such stamp, die, plate, instrument or materials in the possession of any person for making any fictitious stamp 2*[may be seized and, if seized] shall be forfeited.

(3) In this section "fictitious stamp" means any stamp falsely purporting to be issued by Government for the purpose of denoting a rate of postage, or any facsimile or imitation or representation, whether on paper or otherwise, of any stamp issued by Government for that purpose.

(4) In this section and also in sections 255 to 263, both inclusive, the word "Government", when used in connection with, or in reference to, any stamp issued for the purpose of denoting a rate of postage, shall, notwithstanding anything in section 17, be deemed to include the person or persons authorized by law to administer executive Government in any part of India, and also in any part of Her Majesty's dominions or in any foreign country.]

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section requires that there must be either making, or uttering with knowledge, or dealing in or selling of fictitious stamp, or using the same for any postal purpose with knowledge, or possessing the same without lawful excuse, or making or possessing any die, or plate or instrument or materials for making such stamp without lawful excuse.

The section, gives right to seize and forfeit such stamp, die, plate, instrument and materials. The section also defines the expression ‘fictitious stamp’ as meaning in this section any stamp falsely purporting to be issued by the Government for denoting rate of postage, or any facsimile for imitation or representation on paper or otherwise, of any government stamp for that purpose.

The word ‘government’ in sections 255 to 263-A of the Code, which is the latter part of this chapter XII dealing with offences relating to coin and government stamps, when used in connection with, or with reference to, any stamp issued for the purpose of denoting a rate of postage shall, notwithstanding its definition in section 17 of the Indian Penal Code, be deemed to include person or persons authorized by law to administer executive government anywhere in India as well as anywhere in Her Majesty’s dominions or a foreign country. A part of the section punishes preparation to commit crime.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 264 - Fraudulent use of false instrument for weighing

Whoever, fraudulently uses any instrument for weighing which he knows to be false, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section makes fraudulent use of false instrument for weighing, an offence. It says that whoever uses any instrument for weighing with intention to defraud with the knowledge that the instrument is false, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to one year, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 265 - Fraudulent use of false weight or measure

Whoever, fraudulently uses any false weight or false measure of length or capacity, or fraudulently uses any weight or any measure of length or capacity as a different weight or measure from what it is, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section penalizes fraudulent use of false weight or measure. It says that whoever uses any false weight or false measure either of length or of capacity with intention to defraud, or uses any weight or any measure either of length or of capacity with intention to defraud as a different weight or measure from what it actually is, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 266 - Being in possession of false weight or measure

Whoever is in possession of any instrument for weighing, or of any weight, or of any measure of length or capacity, which he knows to be false, intending that the same may be fraudulently used, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section states that whoever possesses either any weighing instrument, or any weight, or any measure of length or capacity, about which he has knowledge that the same is false, with the intention to use the same fraudulently, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to one year, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 267 - Making or selling false weight or measure

Whoever makes, sells or disposes of any instrument for weighing, or any weight, or any measure of length or capacity which he knows to be false, in order that the same may be used as true, or knowing that the same is likely to be used as true, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section states that whoever either makes, or sells, or disposes of, any weighing instrument, or any weight, or any measure of length or capacity, about which he has knowledge that the same is false, in order that the same may be used as true, or with the knowledge that the same is likely to be used as true, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to one year, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 268 - Public Nuisance

A person is guilty of a public nuisance who does any act or is guilty of an illegal omission which causes any common injury, danger or annoyance to the public or to the people in general who dwell or occupy property in the vicinity, or which must necessarily cause injury, obstruction, danger or annoyance to persons who may have occasion to use any public right.

A common nuisance is not excused on the ground that it causes some convenience or advantage.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

According to the section, a person commits public nuisance who either does any act or is guilty of an illegal omission, which causes either any common injury or danger or annoyance to the public or to the people in general who stay or occupy property near that place, or which must necessarily cause either injury or obstruction or danger or annoyance to such persons who may have occasion to use any public right. It is not a defense to say that the common nuisance is convenient or advantageous.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 269 - Negligent act likely to spread infection of disease dangerous to life

Whoever unlawfully or negligently does any act which is, and which he knows or has reason to believe to be, likely to spread the infection of any disease dangerous to life, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section states that whoever either unlawfully or negligently does any act which is likely to spread the infection of any such disease as is dangerous to life and about which he has knowledge or he has reason to believe to be so, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to six months, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 270 - Malignant act likely to spread infection of disease dangerous to life

Whoever malignantly does any act which is, and which he knows or has reason to believe to be, likely to spread the infection of any disease dangerous to life, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section says that whoever malignantly does any act which in fact is, and about which he has knowledge or he has reason to believe to be, likely to spread the infection of such a disease as is dangerous to life, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 271 - Disobedience to quarantine rule

Whoever knowingly disobeys any rule made and promulgated [by the  Government] for putting any vessel into a state of quarantine, or for regulating the intercourse of vessels in a state of quarantine with the shore or with other vessels, for regulating the intercourse between places where an infectious disease prevails and other places, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section says that whoever with knowledge disobeys any rule which the government has made and promulgated for putting any vessel into a state of quarantine, or for regulating the intercourse of vessels in a state of quarantine either with the intercourse between places where infectious disease is prevailing and other places, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to six months, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 272 - Adulteration of food or drink intended for sale

Whoever adulterates any article of food or drink, so as to make such article noxious as food or drink, intending to sell such article as food or drink, or knowing it to be likely that the same will be sold as food or drink, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section says that whoever adulterates any article of food or drink, so as to make the same noxious, with the intention of selling the same, or with the knowledge that the same is likely to be sold as food or drink, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to six months, or with fine extending up to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 273 - Sale of noxious food or drink

Whoever sells, or offers or exposes for sale, as food or drink, any article which has been rendered or has become noxious, or is in a state unfit for food or drink, knowing or having reason to believe that the same is noxious as food or drink, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whoever either sells, or offers or exposes for sale, any article as food or drink which has either been rendered noxious or which has become noxious, or which is in such a state that makes it unfit for food or drink, either with the knowledge or having reason to believe that the same is noxious as food or drink, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to six months, or with fine extending up to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 274 - Adulteration of drugs

Whoever adulterates any drug or medical preparation in such a manner as to lessen the efficacy or change the operation of such drug or medical preparation, or to make it noxious, intending that it shall be sold or used for, or knowing it to be likely that it will be sold or used for, any medicinal purpose, as it had not undergone such adulteration, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section states that whoever adulterates any drug or medical preparation is such a manner as to lessen either the efficacy of the same or change its operation, or to make it noxious, with the intention that it shall either be sold or used for, or with the knowledge that it is likely that it will either be sold or used for, any medicinal purpose, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to six months, or with fine extending up to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 275 - Sale of adulterated drugs

Whoever, knowing any drug or medical preparation to have been adulterated in such a manner as to lessen its efficacy, to change its operation, or to render it noxious, sells the same, or offers or exposes it for sale, or issues it from any dispensary for medicinal purposes as unadulterated, or causes it to be used for medicinal purposes by any person not knowing of the adulteration, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whoever, having knowledge that any drug or medical preparation has been so adulterated as to lessen its efficacy, or to change its operation, or to render it noxious, either sells the same or offers or exposes it for sale, or issues it from any dispensary for medicinal purposes as without adulteration, or causes it to be used for medicinal purposes by any person who does not know that it is adulterated, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to six months, or with fine extending up to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 276 - Sale of drug as a different drug or preparation

Whoever knowingly sells, or offers or exposes for sale, or issues from a dispensary for medicinal purposes, any drug or medical preparation, as a different drug or medical preparation, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whoever with knowledge either sells, or offers for sale, or exposes for sale, or issues from a dispensary for medicinal purposes, any drug or medical preparation, as another drug or medical preparation, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to six months, or with fine extending up to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 277 - Fouling water of public spring or reservoir

Whoever voluntarily corrupts or fouls the water of any public spring or reservoir, so as to render it less fit for the purpose for which it is ordinarily used, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three months, or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section states that whoever corrupts or fouls the water of any public spring or reservoir voluntarily, so as to make it less fit for the purpose for which the water of that spring or reservoir is used ordinarily, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to three months, or with fine extending up to five hundred rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 278 - Making atmosphere noxious to health

Whoever voluntarily vitiates the atmosphere in any place so as to make it noxious to the health of persons in general dwelling or carrying on business in the neighbourhood or passing along a public way, shall be punished with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section says that whoever vitiates the atmosphere in any place voluntarily so as to make it noxious to the health of persons in general who dwell or carry on business in that area or who pass along a public way, shall be punished with fine extending up to five hundred rupees.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 279 - Rash driving or riding on a public way

Whoever drives any vehicle, or rides, on any public way in a manner so rash or negligent as to endanger human life, or to be likely to cause hurt or injury to any other person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Rash or negligent driving on a public way endangering human life or likely to cause injuries to persons has been made an offence under this section. The section states that whoever drives any vehicle, or rides, on any public way in such a manner that it is so rash or negligent as to either endanger human life, or to be likely to cause hurt or injury to any other person, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to six months, or with fine extending up to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 280 - Rash navigation of vessel

Whoever navigates any vessel in a manner so rash or negligent as to endanger human life, or to be likely to cause hurt or injury to any other person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Rash or negligent navigation of a vessel has been made an offence under this section. The section states that whoever navigates any vessel in such a rash or negligent manner as to endanger human life, or is likely to cause hurt or injury to any person, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to six months, or with fine extending up to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 281 - Exhibition of false light, mark or buoy

Whoever exhibits any false light, mark or buoy, intending or knowing it to be likely that such exhibition will mislead any navigator, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section says that whoever exhibits any false light, mark or buoy, with the intention or with the knowledge that it is likely that such exhibition will mislead any navigator, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to seven years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 282 - Conveying person by water for hire in unsafe or overloaded vessel

Whoever knowingly or negligently conveys, or causes to be conveyed for hire, any person by water in any vessel, when that vessel is in such a state or so loaded as to endanger the life of that person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

It says that whoever conveys either with knowledge or with negligence, or causes to be conveyed for hire, any person by water in any vessel when the state of that vessel is such as to endanger that person’s life or it is so loaded as to endanger his life, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to six months, or with fine extending up to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 283 - Danger or obstruction in public way or line of navigation

Whoever, by doing any act, or by omitting to take order with any property in his possession or under his charge, causes danger, obstruction or injury to any person in any public way or public line of navigation, shall be punished, with fine which may extend to two hundred rupees.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section states that whoever either causes danger, or obstruction or injury to any person in any public way or public line of navigation, by either doing any act, or by making an omission to take order with any property which is in his possession or under his charge, shall be punished with fine extending up to two hundred rupees.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 284 - Negligent conduct with respect to poisonous substance

Whoever does, with any poisonous substance, any act in a manner so rash or negligent as to endanger human life, or to be likely to cause hurt or injury to any person, or knowingly or negligently omits to take such order with any poisonous substance in his possession as is sufficient to guard against probable danger to human life from such poisonous substance, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section punishes rash or negligent conduct with respect to poisonous substances. It says that whoever does any act with any poisonous substance in such a rash or negligent manner as to place human life to danger, or to be likely to cause hurt or injury to any person, or omits to take such order with any poisonous substance in his possession with knowledge or with negligence as is sufficient to guard against any danger which is probable to human life from such poisonous substance, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment extending up to six months, or with fine extending up to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 285 - Negligent conduct with respect to fire or combustible matter

Whoever does, with fire or any combustible matter, any act so rashly or negligently as to endanger human life, or to be likely to cause hurt or injury to any other person, or knowingly or negligently omits to take such order with any fire or any combustible matter in his possession as is sufficient to guard against any probable danger to human life from such fire or combustible matter, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section makes rash or negligent conduct with respect to fire or combustible matter an offence. It says that whoever does any act, with fire or any combustible matter, which is so rash or negligent as to be dangerous to human life, or to be likely to cause hurt or injury to any person, or with knowledge or with negligence makes an omission to take such order with any fire or combustible matter which he possesses as is sufficient to guard against any probable danger to human life from such fire or combustible matter, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to six months, or with fine extending up to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 286 - Negligent conduct with respect to explosive substance

Whoever does, with any machinery, any act so rashly or negligently as to endanger human life or to be likely to cause hurt or injury to any other person, or knowingly or negligently omits to take such order with any machinery in his possession or under his care as is sufficient to guard against any probable danger to human life from such machinery, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

According to the section, whoever does any act with any explosive substance in such a rash or negligent manner as to cause danger to human life, or to be likely to cause hurt or injury to another person, or with knowledge or negligently makes an omission to take such order with any explosive substance which he possesses as is sufficient to guard against any possible danger to human life from that substance, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to six months, or with fine extending up to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 287 - Negligent conduct with respect to machinery

Whoever does, with any machinery, any act so rashly or negligently as to endanger human life or to be likely to cause hurt or injury to any other person, or knowingly or negligently omits to take such order with any machinery in his possession or under his care as is sufficient to guard against any probable danger to human life from such machinery, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whoever does any act with any machinery which is so rash or negligent as to cause danger to human life, or to be likely to cause hurt or injury to any other person, or with knowledge or with negligence makes an omission to take such order with any machinery which he possesses or which is under his care as is sufficient to guard against any probable danger to human life from that machinery, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to six months, or with fine extending up to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 288 - Negligent conduct with respect to pulling down or repairing buildings

Whoever, in pulling down or repairing any building, knowingly or negligently omits to take such order with that building as is sufficient to guard against any probable danger to human life from the fall of that building, or of any part thereof, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section states that whoever, either in pulling down any building or repairing the same, with knowledge or negligently omits to take such order with that building as is sufficient to guard against any probable danger to human life from the fall of that building or any part of the same, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to six months, or with fine extending up to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 289 - Negligent conduct with respect to animal

Whoever knowingly or negligently omits to take such order with any animal in his possession as is sufficient to guard against any probable danger to human life, or any probable danger of grievous hurt from such animal, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section prohibits rash or negligent conduct with respect to animals. It says that whoever, with knowledge or negligently, makes an omission to take such order with any animal which he possesses as is sufficient to guard against any probable danger to human life, or any probable danger of grievous hurt from such animal, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 290 - Punishment for public nuisance in cases not otherwise provided for

Whoever commits a public nuisance in any case not otherwise punishable by this Code, shall be punished with fine which may extend to two hundred rupees.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section provides punishment for such cases of public nuisance for which the Code has not provided punishment. It says that whoever commits a public nuisance in any case not otherwise punishable by the Indian Penal Code, shall be punished with fine extending up to two hundred rupees.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 291 - Continuance of nuisance after injunction to discontinue

Whoever repeats or continues a public nuisance, having been enjoined by any public servant who has lawful authority to issue such injunction not to repeat or continue such nuisance, shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section says that whoever repeats or continues a public nuisance after any such public servant has enjoined him who has lawful authority to issue such injunction not to repeat or continue such nuisance, shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term extending up to six months, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 292 - Sale, etc., of obscene books, etc

[(1) For the purposes of sub-section (2), a book, pamphlet, paper, writing, drawing, painting representation, figure or any other object, shall be deemed to be obscene if it is lascivious or appeals to the prurient interest or if its effect, or (where it comprises two or more distinct items) the effect of any one of its items, is, if taken as a whole, such as to tend to deprave and corrupt persons who are likely, having regard to all relevant circumstances, to read, see or hear the matter contained or embodied in it.]

[(2)] Whoever-

(a) sells, lets to hire, distributes, publicly exhibits or in any manner puts into circulation, or for purposes of sale, hire, distribution, public exhibition or circulation, makes, reduces or has in his possession any obscene book, pamphlet, paper, drawing, painting, representation or figure or any other obscene object whatsoever, or

(b) imports, exports or conveys any obscene object for any of the purposes aforesaid, or knowing or having reason to believe that such object will be sold, let to hire, distributed or publicly exhibited or in any manner put into circulation, or

(c) takes part in or receives profits from any business in the course of which he knows or has reason to believe that any such obscene objects are, for any of the purposes aforesaid, made, produced, purchased, kept, imported, exported, conveyed, publicly exhibited or in any manner put into circulation, or

(d) advertises or makes known by any means whatsoever that any person is engaged or is ready to engage in any act which is an offence under this section, or that any such obscene object can be procured from or through any person, or

 (e) offers or attempts to do any act which is an offence under this section, shall be punished 1 [on first conviction with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, and with fine which may extend to two thousand rupees, and, in the event of a second or subsequent conviction, with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years, and also with fine which may extend to five thousand rupees].

2 [Exception-This section does not extend to-

(a) any book, pamphlet, paper, writing, drawing, painting, representation or figure-

(i) the publication of which is proved to be justified as being for the public good on the ground that such book, pamphlet, paper, writing, drawing, painting, representation or figure is in the interest of science, literature, art or learning or other objects of general concern, or

(ii) which is kept or used bona fide for religious purposes;

(b) any representation sculptured, engraved, painted or otherwise represented on or in-

(i) any ancient monument within the meaning of the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958 (24 of 1958), or

(ii) any temple, or on any car used for the conveyance of idols, or kept or used for any religious purpose.]]

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section makes sale, letting to hire, distribution and public exhibition of obscene books etc an offence. Sections 292 and 293 were amended by Act XXXVI of 1969. Even though law of obscenity was liberalised in favour of works of science, art and literature, care was taken to see that obscene publications in the guise of such works were dealt with severely. While sub-section (1) of the section attempts to explain the meaning of ‘obscenity’, sub-section (2) penalises sale etc. of obscene material, and the exception exempts liability under certain circumstances.

Sub-section (1) says that for the purposes of sub-section (2) of this section book, pamphlet etc. shall be deemed to be obscene if the same is either lascivious or appeals to prurient interest or if its effect, or the effect of any one of its items, in such cases where it has more than one item, is such as has a tendency to deprave or corrupt persons if taken as a whole who are likely to read, see or hear the matter contained or embodied in it, having regard to all relevant circumstances.

Sub-section (2) says whoever (a) either sells, lets to hire, distributes, publicly exhibits or in any manner puts into circulation, or for the purposes of sale, hire, distribution, public exhibition, or circulation, makes, produces or possesses any obscene book, pamphlet, paper, drawing, painting, representation or figure of any obscene object whatsoever, or (b) either imports, exports or conveys any object which is obscene for any of the aforesaid purposes, or with knowledge or having reason to believe that such object will be either sold, let to hire, distributed or exhibited publicly or put into circulation in any manner, or (c) either participates in or receives profits from any business in the course of which he has knowledge or has reason to believe that any such obscene objects are, for the aforesaid purposes, either made, produced, purchased, kept, imported, exported, conveyed, exhibited publicly or in any manner circulated, or (d) either advertises or makes known by whatever means that any person is either engaged or is ready to engage in any act which is an offence under this section, or any such obscene object can be procured from or through any person, or (e) either offers to do or attempts to do any act which is an offence under this section, shall be punished on first conviction with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to two years, and with fine extending up to two thousand rupees, and in the event of subsequent convictions, with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to five years, and also with fine extending up to five thousand rupees.

There is an exception attached to this section according to which the section does not extend to (a) any book, pamphlet, paper, writing, drawing, painting, representation or figure (i) the publication of which is justified for public good on the ground that the same is in the interest of science, literature, art or learning or other objects of general concern, or (ii) which is either kept or used bona fide for religious purposes. The exception also does not extend to (b) any representation which is sculptured, engraved, painted or otherwise represented on or in (i) any ancient monument within the meaning of the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958 (24 of 1958), or (ii) Any temple, or on any car used for the conveyance of idols, or kept or used for any religious purpose.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 293 - Sale, etc., of obscene objects to young person

Whoever sells, lets to hire, distributes, exhibits or circulates to any person under the age of twenty years any such obscene object as is referred to in the last preceding section, or offers or attempts so to do, shall be punished [on first conviction with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and with fine which may extend to two thousand rupees, and, in the event of a second or subsequent conviction, with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and also with fine which may extend to five thousand rupees]

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

It says that whoever either sells, or lets to hire, or distributes, or exhibits, or circulates to any person who is less than twenty years old any such obscene object as is referred to in section 292 of the Code, or offers or attempts so to do, shall be punished, while being convicted for the first time, with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to three years, and with fine extending up to two thousand rupees, and, while being convicted on subsequent occasions, with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to seven years, and also with fine extending up to five thousand rupees.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 294 - Obscene acts and songs

Whoever, to the annoyance of others,

(a) does any obscene act in any public place, or

(b) sings, recites or utters any obscene song, ballad or words, in or near any public place, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three months, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section states that whoever annoys others by either doing any obscene act in any public place, or by singing, reciting or uttering any obscene songs, ballad or words, in any public place or near it, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to three months., or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 294A - Keeping lottery office

Whoever keeps any office or place for the purpose of drawing any lottery [not being [a State lottery] or a lottery authorized by the [State] Government], shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine, or with both.

And whoever publishes any proposal to pay any sum, or to deliver any goods, or to do or forbear doing anything for the benefit of any person, on any event or contingency relative or applicable to the drawing of any ticket, lot, number or figure in any such lottery shall be punished with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees.]

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

It says that whoever keeps any office or place for the purpose of drawing any lottery which is neither a State lottery nor is it authorised by the State Government, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to six months, or with fine, or with both.

And whoever publishes either any proposal to pay any sum, or to deliver and goods, or to do or forbear from doing anything for the benefit of any person, on any event or contingency which is relative or applies to the drawing of either any ticket, or lot, or number, or figure, in any such lottery, shall be punished with fine extending up to one thousand rupees.

The first part of the section requires that there must be keeping of any office or place. The same must be for the purpose of drawing any lottery which is not a State lottery or not a lottery authorised by the State Government.

According to the latter part of the section there must be publication of any proposal to pay any sum, or delivery of any goods, or doing or forbearing to do anything for the benefit of any person, or any event or contingency which is relative or applicable to the drawing of any ticket, lot, number or figure in any such lottery. While the first part punishes keeping of a lottery office or place, the second penalises publishing of any proposal regarding a lottery not authorized by the government.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 295 - Injuring or defiling place of worship, with intent to insult the religion of any class

Whoever destroys, damages or defiles any place of worship, or any object held sacred by any class of persons with the intention of thereby insulting the religion of any class of persons or with the knowledge that any class of persons is likely to consider such destruction, damage or defilement as an insult to their religion, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if anyone destroys a place of worship with the intent of destroying and demolishing it, knowing that it would mean the other person would consider the act as an insult to thier religion, that person shall be liable to an imprisonment for a period which can extend to 2 years, or liable to fine, or both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 295A - Deliberate and malicious acts intended to outrage religious feelings of any class by insulting its religion or religious beliefs

Whoever, with deliberate and malicious intention of outraging the religious feelings of any class of [citizens of India], [by words, either spoken or written, or by signs or by visible representations or otherwise] insults or attempts to insult the religion or the religious beliefs of that class, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to [three years], or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The points requiring proof under Section 295A are:
i) That the accused insulted or attempted to insult the religion or the religious beliefs of a class of citizens of India;
ii) That he did so deliberately, and
iii) Maliciously, and
iv) With intent to outrage the religious feelings of any class, etc.
Section 295-A deals with deliberate and malicious acts intended to outrage the religious feeling. The term ‘maliciously’ means and implies an intention to do an act which is wrongful to the detriment of another. Where any person willfully does an act injurious to another without lawful excuse, he does it maliciously. And so he shall be punished under this section for a term which may extend to 3 years, or fine, or both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 296 - Disturbing religious assembly

Whoever voluntarily causes disturbance to any assembly lawfully engaged in the performance of religious worship, or religious ceremonies, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Disturbing a religious assembly which is lawfully engaged in performing religious worship has been made an offence under this section. The section says that whoever voluntarily causes disturbance to any assembly which is lawfully engaged in performing religious worship or religious ceremonies, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 1 year, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 297 - Trespassing on burial places, etc

Whoever, with the intention of wounding the feelings of any person, or of insulting the religion of any person, or with the knowledge that the feelings of any person are likely to be wounded, or that the religion of any person is likely to be insulted thereby, commits any trespass in any place of worship or on any place of sepulture, or any place set apart for the performance of funeral rites or as a depository for the remains of the dead, or offers any indignity to any human corpse, or causes disturbance to any persons assembled for the performance of funeral ceremonies, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Section 297 punishes acts of three kinds:
i) Trespass in place of worship or upon the sepulture of the dead,
ii) Indignity to a human corpse, and
iii) Disturbance in a funeral ceremony.              

Section 297 punishes a person who trespasses on burial place or on places of sepulture. The trespass may be a civil trespass or mere encroachment or an unauthorized entry without amounting to criminal trespass. Trespass here means any violent or injurious act, committed in a place of worship with such intention or knowledge as is defined in Section 297. When some persons had sexual connection inside a mosque, they were offenders under Section 297.
The essence of Section 297 is an intention, or knowledge of likelihood, to wound feelings or insult religion and when with that intention or knowledge trespass on a place of sepulture, indignity to a corpse, or disturbance to persons assembled for funeral ceremonies, is committed it becomes an offence under Section 297. The guilty shall be punished with imprisonment which can extend to 1 year, or fine, or both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 298 - Uttering words, etc., with deliberate intent to wound religious feelings

Whoever, with the deliberate intention of wounding the religious feelings of any person, utters any word or makes any sound in the hearing of that person or makes any gesture in the sight of that person or places any object in the sight of that person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section punishes uttering words etc. with the deliberate intention of wounding the religious feelings of any person. It says that whoever either utters any word, or makes any sound, which a person can hear, or makes any gesture which a person can see, or places any object which a person can see, with the deliberate intention of wounding the religious feelings of that person, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 1 year, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 299 - Culpable Homicide

Whoever causes death by doing an act with the intention of causing death, or with the intention of causing such bodily injury as is likely to cause death, or with the knowledge that he is likely by such act to cause death, commits the offence of culpable homicide.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if a person does such an act which he knows to cause death of another person, or such an injury which will likely result in death of other person, that person commits the offence of culpable homicide.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 300 - Murder

Except in the cases hereinafter excepted, culpable
homicide is murder, if the act by which the death is caused is done with the intention of causing death, or-
secondly.-If it is done with the intention of causing such bodily injury as the offender knows to be likely to cause the death of the person to whom the harm is caused. or-
Thirdly.-If it is done with the intention of causing bodily injury to any person and the bodily injury intended to be inflicted is sufficient in the ordinary course of nature to cause death, or-
Fourthly.-If the person committing the act knows that it is so imminently dangerous that it must, in all probability, cause death, or such bodily injury as is likely to cause death, and commits such act without any excuse for incurring the risk of causing death or such injury as aforesaid.                                

 Exception 1.-When culpable homicide is not murder.-Culpable homicide is not murder if the offender, whilst deprived of the power of self-control by grave and sudden provocation, causes the death of the person who gave the provocation or causes the death of any other person by mistake or accident.
The above exception is subject to the following provisos:-
First.-That the provocation is not sought or voluntarily provoked by the offender as an excuse for killing or doing harm to any person.
Secondly.-That the provocation is not given by anything done in obedience to the law, or by a public servant in the lawful exercise ofthe powers of such public servant.
Thirdly.-That the provocation is not given by anything done in the lawful exercise of the right of private defence.
Explanation.-Whether the provocation was grave and sudden enough to prevent the offence from amounting to murder is a question of fact.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Section 300 defines murder with reference to culpable homicide defined in Section 299. Homicide is the causing of the death of one person by another. Homicide may be culpable, and culpable homicide may amount to murder.
Homicide is culpable homicide simpliciter if death is caused by the doing of an act with the intention of causing, or with the knowledge that the doer of the act is likely by such act to cause death; or with the intention or knowledge of causing death under the following circumstances, namely:
1. If the offender, whilst deprived of the power of self control under grave and sudden provocation, causes the death of the person who gave the provocation, or causes the death of any other person by mistake or accident.
2. If the offender, whilst exercising in good faith the right of private defence, exceeds the power given by the law and causes the death of the person against whom he is asserting the right, without premeditation and intention of doing more harm than is necessary for such defence.
3. If the offender causes the death by doing a lawful act in an unlawful manner.
4. If the death is caused in a sudden mutual combat.
5. If the death is caused by valid consent.
Essentials of the offence of murder
The offence is murder in the following cases:
1. If the act is done with the intention of causing death.
2. If the act is done with the intention of causing such bodily injury as the offender knows to be likely to cause the death of the person to whom the harm is caused.
3. If the act is done with the intention of causing such bodily injury as is sufficient in the ordinary course of nature to cause death.
4. If the act is done with the knowledge, that it is so imminently dangerous that it must, in all probability, cause death, or such bodily injury as is likely to cause death, and such act is committed without any excuse for incurring the risk of causing death or injury.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 301 - Culpable homicide by causing death of person other than person whose death was intended

If a person, by doing anything which he intends or knows to be likely to cause death, commits culpable homicide by causing the death of any person, whose death he neither intends nor knows himself to be likely to cause, the culpable homicide committed by the offender is of the description of which it would have been if he had caused the death of the person whose death he intended or knew himself to he likely to cause.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section deals with the law of homicide by causing death of person other than the person whose death was intended to be caused. It says that if a person, by doing something about which he has intention or knowledge to be likely to cause death, commits culpable homicide by causing the death of any person whose death he has no intention to cause or he does know that his death is likely to be caused, the culpable homicide committed by the offender is amounting to murder or not amounting to murder as it would have been if he had caused the death of the person whose death he had intention to cause or whose death he had knowledge to be likely to cause.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 302 - Punishment for Murder

Whoever commits murder shall be punished with death, or [imprisonment for life], and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section, which prescribes punishment for murder, says that whoever commits murder shall be punished either with death or with imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine. In other words, the Indian Penal Code has prescribed only two kinds of punishment, death sentence and imprisonment for life, out of which one has to be imposed on a murder convict who shall also be liable to fine if the court so deems necessary.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 303 - Punishment for murder by life-convict

Whoever, being under sentence of [imprisonment for life], commits murder, shall be punished with death.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section prescribes punishment for murder committed by a life- convict. It says that whoever, being under sentence of imprisonment for life, commits murder, shall be punished with death. In other words, the section makes capital sentence compulsory when a murder is committed by a person who is undergoing a sentence of imprisonment for life.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 304 - Punishment for culpable homicide not amounting to murder

Whoever commits culpable homicide not amounting to murder shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], or imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine, if the act by which the death is caused is done with the intention of causing death. or of causing such bodily injury as is likely to cause death;
or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, or with fine, or with both, if the act is donewith the knowledge that it is likely to cause death, but without any intention to cause death, or to cause such bodily injury as is likely to cause death.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Under this section there are two kinds of punishment applying to two separate degrees of culpable homicide depending upon: (i) intention to cause death or bodily injury likely to cause death under Part-1 (i.e., para-1) and (ii) knowledge that the act is likely to cause death under Part-II (para-2). For conviction of the offence of culpable homicide not amounting to murder under Section 204, Part-I, the following two circumstances must be proved, viz., the act by which the death is caused is done: (a) with the intention of causing death; and (b) of causing such bodily injury as is likely to cause death. Under Part- 1 of Section 304, the punishment is imprisonment for life, or imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to 10 years and fine.
If the act is done with knowledge that is likely to cause death but without any intention to cause death or such bodily injury as is likely to cause death, the punishment is imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to 10 years, or with fine, or with both under Part-II of Sec. 304 of the Code.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 304A - Causing death by negligence

Whoever causes the death of any person by doing any rash or negligent act not amounting to culpable homicide shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The provisions of Section 304-A apply to cases where there is no intention to cause death, and no knowledge that the act done in all probability would cause death. Section 304-A deals with homicide by negligence. It does not apply to a case in which there has been the voluntary commission of an offence against the person. The said person will be imprisoned for a term which may extend to 2 years, or fine, or both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 304B - Dowry Death

(1) Where the death of a woman is caused by any burns or bodily injury or occurs otherwise than under normal circumstances within seven years of her marriage and it is shown that soon before her death she was subjected to cruelty or harassment by her husband or any relative of her husband for, or in connection with, any demand for dowry, such death shall be called "dowry death", and such husband or relative shall be deemed to have caused her death.
Explanation.-For the purposes of this sub-section, "dowry" shall have the same meaning as in section 2 of the Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961 (28 of 1961).
(2) Whoever commits dowry death shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than seven years but which may extend to imprisonment for life.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The essential ingredients of Section 304-B of IPC are:
1. The death of a woman should be caused by burns or bodily injury or otherwise than under normal circumstances
2. Such death should have occurred within seven years of her marriage
3. She must have been subjected to cruelty or harassment by her husband or any relative of her husband
4. Such cruelty or harassment should be for or in connection with demand for dowry and 
5. Such cruelty or harassment is shown to have been meted out to the woman soon before her death.      Any presents made at the time of a marriage to either party to the marriage in the form of cash, ornaments, clothes or other articles, shall not be deemed to be dowry within the meaning of this section, unless they are made as consideration for the marriage of the said parties. The presumption of dowry death will arise only when the prosecution has established the basic element of demand for dowry. The initial burden lies on the prosecution to prove the ingredients of Section 304-B, including the fact that soon before her death, she had been subjected by the accused persons to cruelty or harassment for, or in connection with, any demand for dowry. The husband and husband’s relatives shall be presumed to have caused a ‘dowry death’ and shall be liable for the offence unless it is proved otherwise. That is to say, the burden of proof shifts from the prosecution to the accused, unlike other offences where the accused is presumed to be innocent, unless it is proved otherwise. The guilty person shall be awarded imprisonment of not less then 7 years which can extend to imprisonment for life.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 305 - Abetment of suicide of child or insane person

If any person under eighteen years of age, any insane person, any delirious person, any idiot, or any person in a state of intoxication commits suicide, whoever abets the commission of such suicide, shall be punished with death or [imprisonment for life], or imprisonment for a term not exceeding ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The abetment of suicide of a child or an insane person etc. where the abetted person commits suicide has been made an offence under this section. Sections 305 and 306 should be read together. The section says that whoever abets the commission of suicide by any person who is either less than eighteen years of age, or insane, or delirious, or idiot, or in a state of intoxication, and the abetted person commits suicide, shall be punished with death, or imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for a term extending up to 10 years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 306 - Abetment of suicide

If any person commits suicide, whoever abets the commission of such suicide, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section punishes the abettor of a suicide where suicide is committed because of such abetment. In this respect sections 305 and 306 are similar in nature. The section says that whoever abets the commission of a suicide, and suicide in fact is committed, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 10 years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 307 - Attempt to Murder

Whoever does any act with such intention or knowledge, and under such circumstances that, if he by that act caused death, he would be guilty of murder, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine; and, if hurt is caused to any person by such act, the offender shall be liable either to [imprisonment for life], or to such punishment as is hereinbefore mentioned.
Attempts by life-convicts.-[When any person offending under this section is under sentence of [imprisonment for life], he may, if hurt is caused, be punished with death.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Attempt to commit an offence, therefore, can be said to begin when the preparations are complete and the culprit commences to do something with the intention of committing the offence, and which is a step towards the commission of the offence. The moment he commences to do an act with the necessary intention, he commences his attempt to commit the offence.
The essentials for criminal attempt are:
i) An existence of an intention on the part of the accused to commit a particular offence;
ii) Some steps taken towards it after completion of preparation;
iii) The step must be apparently though not necessarily adapted to the purpose designed;
iv) It must come dangerously near to success;
v) It must fall short of completion of the ultimate design.
An attempt in order to be criminal need not be the penultimate act. It is sufficient in law if there is present an intent coupled with some overt act in execution thereof. For purposes of criminal liability, it is sufficient if the attempt had gone so far that the crime would have been completed but for extraneous intervention which frustrated its consummation.
Section 307 deals with the offence of attempt to commit murder. In order to constitute an offence under Section 307, two elements are essential. First the intention of knowledge to commit murder. Secondly, the actual act of trying to commit the murder. It must have both the necessary mens rea and actus reus. Punishment shall be for a term which can extend to 10 years, and also liable for fine, if the person causes hurt then punishment shall be imprisonment for life. The second part of Section 307, prescribes death sentence to a life convict for attempt to bodily injury capable of causing death and in that process causing hurt to such person

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 308 - Attempt to commit culpable homicide

Whoever does any act with such intention or knowledge and under such circumstances that, if he by that act caused death, he would be guilty of culpable homicide not amounting to murder, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both; and, if hurt is caused to any person by such act, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Section 308 applies to attempts to homicide not amounting to murder, in which there has been not merely a commencement of an execution of the purpose, but something short of a complete execution, the consummation being hindered by circumstances independent of the will of the author.
 This can only be proved by providing facts and circumstances, from which it would be justifiable to hold that if the act had been completed, it would have been only culpable homicide, and not murder. The punishment provided for the offence of attempt to commit culpable homicide is imprisonment for a term which may extend to 3 years or with fine or with both; and if hurt is caused to any person by such act, the culprit shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to 7 years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 309 - Attempt to commit suicide

Whoever attempts to commit suicide and does any act towards the commission of such offence, shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year [or with fine, or with both.]

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

An attempt to commit a crime is an act done with intent to commit that crime, and forming part of a series of acts which would constitute its actual commission if it were not interrupted. The offence of attempting to commit a crime may be committed in cases in which the offender voluntarily desists from the actual commission of the crime itself. The punishment for attempt to commit suicide is simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to 1 year or with fine or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 310 - Thug

Whoever, at any time after the passing of this Act, shall have been habitually associated with any other or others for the purpose of committing robbery or child-stealing by means of or accompanied with murder, is a thug.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section defines as to who is a thug. A thug according to section 310, is one who after the passing of this Code shall have been associated as a matter of habit with any other person or persons for the purpose of committing either robbery or child-stealing either by means of murder or accompanied with murder.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 311 - Punishment

Whoever is a thug, shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section prescribes penalty for one who is a thug. It says that whoever is a thug shall be punished with imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 312 - Causing miscarriage

Whoever voluntarily causes a woman with child to miscarry, shall if such miscarriage be not caused in good faith for the purpose of saving the life of the woman, be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both; and, if the woman be quick with child, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

1) Voluntarily causing a woman with child to miscarry;
2) Such miscarriage should not have been caused in good faith for saving the life of the pregnant woman. voluntary miscarriage an offence in two situations: (i) when a woman is with child for which punishment is imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both; and (ii) when a woman is quick with child for which the punishment is imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to 7 years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 313 - Causing miscarriage without woman's consent

Whoever commits the offence defined in the last preceding section without the consent of the woman, whether the woman is quick with child or not, shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

In the offence under Section 313, there is no consent of pregnant woman, hence only the person who causes the abortion is punished This offence is an aggravated form of the offence and it is considered a much more grave offence, it is punishable with imprisonment for life or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to 10 years and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 314 - Death caused by act done with intent to cause miscarriage

Whoever, with intent to cause the miscarriage of a woman with child, does any act which causes the death of such woman, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine;
if act done without woman's consent.--and if the act is done without the consent of the woman, shall be punished either with [imprisonment for life], or with the punishment above mentioned.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section penalises causing death by an act done with the intention of causing miscarriage. It says that whoever, with the intention of causing miscarriage of a woman with child, does any act by which death of such woman is caused, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine; and if the act is done without the consent of the woman, shall be punished with imprisonment for life, or with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to ten years and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 315 - Act done with intent to prevent child being born alive or to cause it to die after birth

Whoever before the birth of any child does any act with the intention of thereby preventing that child from being born alive or causing it to die after its birth, and does by such act prevent that child from being born alive, or causes it to die after its birth, shall, if such act be not caused in good faith for the purpose of saving the life of the mother, be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

An act done with the intention of preventing a child being born alive or causing it to die after birth has been made punishable under this section. The section states that whoever before the birth of any child does any act with the intention of thereby preventing the child from being born alive or causing it to die after it is born, and by such act does prevent that child from being born alive, or causes it to die after it is born, shall, if such act be not caused in good faith for the purpose of saving the life of the mother, be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 10 years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 316 - Causing death of quick unborn child by act amounting to culpable homicide

Whoever does any act under such circumstances, that if he thereby caused death he would be guilty of culpable homicide, and does by such act cause the death of a quick unborn child, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section punishes causing death of a quick unborn child by an act amounting to culpable homicide. It says that whoever does any act under such circumstances that causing death by such act would amount to culpable homicide, and he causes the death of a quick unborn child by such act, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 10 years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 317 - Exposure and abandonment of child under twelve years, by parent or person having care of it

Whoever being the father or mother of a child under the age of twelve years, or having the care of such child, shall expose or leave such child in any place with the intention of wholly abandoning such child, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section requires three essentials:
1) The person coming within its purview must be father or mother or must have the care of the child.
2) Such child must be under the age of twelve years.
3) The child must have been exposed or left in any place with the intention of wholly abandoning it.
This section of IPC is applicable only where the exposure or abandonment is of a child, both legitimate and illegitimate below 12 years of age. This section is meant to protect the interests of children below 12 years of age, because they are not in a position to protect themselves. The primary responsibility is cast on the parents and adults, who may have the custody of the child to bring up the child and to provide adequate care for children of tender age. The punishment for offence under this section is imprisonment which can sextend to 7 years, or fine, or both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 318 - Concealment of birth by secret disposal of dead body

Whoever, by secretly burying or otherwise disposing of the dead body of a child whether such child die before or after or during its birth, intentionally conceals or endeavors to conceal the birth of such child, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section requires:
1) Secret burying or otherwise disposing of the dead body of a child;
2) It is immaterial whether such child dies before or after or during its birth;
3) Intention to conceal the birth of such child by such secret burying or disposal.                                      

The offence becomes complete when the birth i.e., the delivery of a child, dead or living is concealed by any means. The punishment is imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to 2 years, or with fine or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 319 - Hurt

Whoever causes bodily pain, disease or infirmity to any person is said to cause hurt.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whoever causes bodily pain, disease or infirmity to any person is said to cause hurt.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 320 - Grievious Hurt

The following kinds of hurt only are designated as "grievous":-
First.-Emasculation.
Secondly.-Permanent privation of the sight of either eye.
Thirdly.-Permanent privation of the hearing of either ear.
Fourthly.-Privation of any member or joint.
Fifthly.-Destruction or permanent impairing of the powers of any member or joint.
Sixthly.-Permanent disfiguration of the head or face.
Seventhly.-Fracture or dislocation of a bone or tooth.
Eighthly.-Any hurt which endangers life or which causes the sufferer to be during the space of twenty days in severe bodily pain, or unable to follow his ordinary pursuits.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section designates certain kinds of hurt as grievous hurt. It says that the following kinds of hurt are designated as grievous : emasculation, permanent privation of the sight of any of the eyes, permanent privation of the hearing of any of the ears, privation of any member or joint, destroying or permanently impairing the powers of any member or joint, permanently disfiguring the head or face, fracture or dislocation of a bone or tooth, and any hurt which either endangers life or which causes the victim to be in severe bodily pain during the space of twenty days, or unable to follow his ordinary pursuits. Though the task of designating grievous hurts was not an easy one, the authors of the Code tried their best and they took a considerable time to come to a reasonable conclusion while designating the eight specific instances under this section.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 321 - Voluntarily causing hurt

Whoever does any act with the intention of thereby causing hurt to any person, or with the knowledge that he is likely thereby to cause hurt to any person, and does thereby cause hurt to any person, is said "voluntarily to cause hurt".

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

According to This section of the Indian Penal Code, Whoever does any act with the intention of thereby causing hurt to any person, or with the knowledge that he is likely thereby to cause hurt to any person, and does thereby cause hurt to any person, is said “voluntarily to cause hurt”.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 322 - Voluntarily causing grievous hurt

Whoever voluntarily causes hurt, if the hurt which he intends to cause or knows himself to be likely to cause is grievous hurt, and if the hurt which he causes is grievous hurt, is said "voluntarily to cause grievous hurt".

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section defines the offence of voluntarily causing grievous hurt. It says that whoever voluntarily causes hurt, if the hurt which he has intention to cause is grievous hurt or if the hurt which he has knowledge to be likely to cause is grievous hurt, and if the hurt, which has been caused by him is grievous hurt, is said ‘voluntarily to cause grievous hurt’. In other words, the offender must voluntarily cause hurt, if his intention is to cause grievous hurt or if he has knowledge that he is likely to cause grievous hurt, and if the hurt caused by him is grievous hurt, then the offender is said voluntarily to cause grievous hurt.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 323 - Punishment for voluntarily causing hurt

Whoever, except in the case provided for by section 334, voluntarily causes hurt, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whoever, except in the case provided for by section 334, voluntarily causes hurt, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 324 - Voluntarily causing hurt by dangerous weapons or means

Whoever, except in the case provided for by section 334, voluntarily causes hurt by means of any instrument for shooting, stabbing or cutting, or any instrument which, used as a weapon of offence, is likely to cause death, or by means of fire or any heated substance, or by means of any poison or any corrosive substance, or by means of any explosive substance or by means of any substance which it is deleterious to the human body to inhale, to swallow, or to receive into the blood, or by means of any animal, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section punishes voluntarily causing hurt by dangerous weapons or means. It says that except in cases stated in section 334, whoever voluntarily causes hurt by means of any instrument for shooting, stabbing, or cutting, or by any instrument which can be used as a weapon of offence and when so used is likely to cause death, or by means of fire or any heated substance, or by means of any poison or corrosive substance, or by means of any explosive substance, or by means of any substance which is deleterious to the human body to inhale, to swallow or to receive into the blood, or by means of any animal, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 3 years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 325 - Punishment for voluntarily causing grievous hurt

Whoever, except in the case provided for by section 335, voluntarily causes grievous hurt, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if any person causes grievous hurt (other than the situations mentioned under section 335) shall be punished with imprisonment which can extend to 7 years, and shall also be liable with fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 326 - Voluntarily causing grievous hurt by dangerous weapons or means

Whoever, except in the case provided for by section 335, voluntarily causes grievous hurt by means of any instrument for shooting, stabbing or cutting, or any instrument which, used as a weapon of offence, is likely to cause death, or by means of fire or any heated substance, or by means of any poison or any corrosive substance, or by means of any explosive substance, or by means of any substance which it is deleterious to the human body to inhale, to swallow, or to receive into the blood, or by means of any animal, shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if any person causes grevious hurt (other then what are mentioned under section 335) by shooting, stabbing or cutting anything which can be used as a weapon of offence which can cause death if used upon any person, or by means of any heated substance, or any poison or any corrosive or explosive substance, which is harmful for human body to inhale, to swallow, or receive into blood, or by means of any animal, shall be punished with imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for a period of time which can extend to 10 years and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 326A - Voluntarily causing grievous hurt by use of acid, etc

Whoever causes permanent or partial damage or deformity to, or bums or maims or disfigures or disables, any part or parts of the body of a person or causes grievous hurt by throwing acid on or by administering acid to that person, or by using any other means with the intention of causing or with the knowledge that he is likely to cause such injury or hurt, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which shall not be less than ten years but which may extend to imprisonment for life, and with fine;Provided that such fine shall be just and reasonable to meet the medical expenses of the treatment of the victim;Provided further that any fine imposed under this section shall be paid to the victim. 

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if a person having an intention of throwing acid on another person which he knows will cause grevious hurt or to parts of a person does the act, he shall he held liable under this section and will be imprisoned for a period of 10 years which can extedn to imprisonment for life, and fine, also the fine shall be taken for the treatment of the victim (fine collected under this section will be given to victim).

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 326B - Voluntarily throwing or attempting to throw acid

Whoever throws or attempts to throw acid on any person or attempts to administer acid to any person, or attempts to use any other means, with the intention of causing permanent or partial damage or deformity or bums or maiming or disfigurement or disability or grievous hurt to that person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which shall not be less than five years but which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if a person having an intention of throwing acid on another person which he knows will cause grevious hurt or to parts of a person does the act or attempts to do it, he shall he held liable under this section and will be imprisoned for a period of 5 years which can extend to 7 years, and fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 327 - Voluntarily causing hurt to extort property, or to constrain to an illegal to an act

Whoever voluntarily causes hurt, for the purpose of extorting from the sufferer, or from any person interested in the sufferer, any property or valuable security, or of constraining the sufferer or any person interested in such sufferer to do anything which is illegal or which may facilitate the commission of an offence, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section penalises voluntarily causing hurt to extort property, or to constrain to an illegal act. It says that whoever causes hurt for the purpose of extorting any property or valuable security either from the sufferer or from any person interested in the sufferer, or of constraining either the sufferer or any person interested in such sufferer to do anything which is illegal or which may facilitate the commission of an offence, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 10 years, and shall also be liable to fine. The section requires voluntary causing of hurt.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 328 - Causing hurt by means of poison, etc., with intent to commit and offence

Whoever administers to or causes to be taken by any person any poison or any stupefying, intoxicating or unwholesome drug, or other thing with intent to cause hurt to such person, or with intent to commit or to facilitate the commission of an offence or knowing it to be likely that he will thereby cause hurt, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Administering etc. poison or stupefying, intoxicating or unwholesome drug etc. with the intention of causing hurt to any person etc. has been made punishable by this section. The section states that whoever either administers to any person, or causes to be taken by any person, either any poison or any stupefying, intoxicating or unwholesome drug or other thing with the intention of causing hurt to such person, or with the intention of either committing or facilitating the commission of an offence or knowing it to be likely that he will thereby be causing hurt shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 10 years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 329 - Voluntarily causing grievous hurt to extort property, or to constrain to an illegal act

Whoever voluntarily causes grievous hurt for the purpose of extorting from the sufferer or from any person interested in the sufferer any property or valuable security, or of constraining the sufferer or any person interested in such sufferer to do anything that is illegal or which may facilitate the commission of an offence, shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], or imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Voluntarily causing grievous hurt to extort property, or to constrain to an illegal act has been made a punishable offence under this section. It says that whoever voluntarily causes grievous hurt for the purpose of extorting any property or valuable security either from the sufferer or from any person interested in the sufferer, or of constraining the sufferer or any person interested in such sufferer to do anything that is illegal or which may facilitate the commission of an offence, shall be punished with imprisonment for life or simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 10 years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 330 - Voluntarily causing hurt to extort confession or to compel restoration of property

Whoever voluntarily causes hurt, for the purpose of extorting from the sufferer or from any person interested in the sufferer, any confession or any information which may lead to the detection of an offence or misconduct, or for the purpose of constraining the sufferer or any person interested in the sufferer to restore or to cause the restoration of any property or valuable security or to satisfy any claim or demand, or to give information which may lead to the restoration of any property or valuable security, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Voluntarily causing hurt to extort confession or to compel restoration of property has been punished under this section. The section states that whoever voluntarily causes hurt for the purpose of extorting, either from the sufferer or from any person interested in the sufferer, any confession or any information which may lead to the detection of an offence or misconduct, or for the purpose of constraining the sufferer or any person interested in the sufferer to either restore or to cause the restoration of any property or valuable security or to satisfy either any claim or demand, or to give information which may lead to the restoration of any property or valuable security, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 7 years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 331 - Voluntarily causing grievous hurt to extort confession, or to compel restoration of property

Whoever voluntarily causes grievous hurt for the purpose of extorting from the sufferer or from any person interested in the sufferer any confession or any information which may lead to the detection of an offence or misconduct, or for the purpose of constraining the sufferer or any person interested in the sufferer to restore or to cause the restoration of any property or valuable security, or to satisfy any claim or demand or to give information which may lead to the restoration of any property or valuable security shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section says that whoever voluntarily causes grievous hurt for the purpose of extorting any confession or any information, either from the sufferer or from any person who is interested in the sufferer, which may lead to the detection of an offence or misconduct, or for the purpose of constraining the sufferer or any person who is interested in the sufferer to either restore or to cause the restoration of any property or valuable security, or to satisfy any claim or demand or to give information which may lead to the restoration of any property or valuable security, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 10 years and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 332 - Voluntarily causing hurt to deter public servant from his duty

Whoever voluntarily causes hurt to any person being a public servant in the discharge of his duty as such public servant, or with intent to prevent or deter that person or any other public servant from discharging his duty as such public servant, or in consequence of anything done or attempted to be done by that person in the lawful discharge of his duty as such public servant, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Voluntarily causing hurt to deter a public servant from discharging his duty etc. has been made a punishable offence under this section. The section states that whoever voluntarily causes hurt to any public servant in the discharge of his duty as such public servant, or with the intention of preventing or deterring that public servant or any other public servant from discharging his duty as such public servant, or in consequence of either anything done or attempted to be done by that public servant in the lawful discharge of his duty as such public servant, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to three years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 333 - Voluntarily causing grievous hurt to deter public servant from his duty

Whoever voluntarily causes grievous hurt to any person being a public servant in the discharge of his duty as such public servant, or with intent to prevent or deter that person or any other public servant from discharging his duty as such public servant, or in consequence of anything done or attempted to be done by that person in the lawful discharge of his duty as such public servant, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section punishes voluntarily causing grievous hurt to deter public servant from his duty. It says that whoever voluntarily causes grievous hurt to any person being a public servant in the discharge of his duty as such public servant, or with intention to either prevent or deter that person or any other public servant from discharging his duty as such public servant, or in consequence of anything done or attempted to be done by that person in the lawful discharge of his duty as such public servant, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 10 years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 334 - Voluntarily causing hurt on provocation

Whoever voluntarily causes hurt on grave and sudden provocation, if he neither intends nor knows himself to be likely to cause hurt to any person other than the person who gave the provocation, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one month, or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section makes voluntarily causing hurt on grave and sudden provocation a punishable offence. It says that whoever voluntarily causes hurt on grave and sudden provocation, shall if he has no intention to cause hurt to any person other than the one who gave him the provocation or he does not know himself to be likely to cause hurt to any person other than the one who gave him the provocation, be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 1 month, or with fine extending up to 500 rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 335 - Voluntarily causing grievous hurt on provocation

Whoever [voluntarily] causes grievous hurt on grave and sudden provocation, if he neither intends nor knows himself to be likely to cause grievous hurt to any person other than the person who gave the provocation shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to four years, or with fine which may extend to two thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Voluntarily causing grievous hurt on grave and sudden provocation has been made a punishable offence under this section. The section states that whoever voluntarily causes grievous hurt on grave and sudden provocation shall, if he has no intention to cause grievous hurt to any person other than the giver of the provocation or he does not know himself to be likely to cause grievous hurt to any person other than the giver of the provocation, be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 4 years, or with fine extending up to 2000 rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 336 - Act endangering life or personal safety of others

Whoever does any act so rashly or negligently as to endanger human life or the personal safety others, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three months or with fine which may extend to two hundred and fifty rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

A rash or negligent act endangering human life or personal safety of others has been made a punishable offence under this section. The section says that whoever does any act so rashly or negligently as to endanger either human life or the personal safety of others, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 3 months or with fine extending up to 250 rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 337 - Causing hurt by act endangering life or personal safety of others

Whoever causes hurt to any person by doing any act so rashly or negligently as to endanger human life, or the personal safety of others, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Causing hurt by rash or negligent act endangering life or personal safety of others has been made punishable under this section. This section states that whoever causes hurt to any person by doing any act so rashly or negligently as to endanger either human life or the personal safety of others, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 6 months, or with fine extending up to 500 rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 338 - Causing grievous hurt by act endangering life or personal safety of others

Whoever causes grievous hurt to any person by doing any act so rashly or negligently as to endanger human life, or the personal safety of others, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Causing grievous hurt by a rash or negligent act endangering life or personal safety of others has been punished under this section. The section says that whoever causes grievous hurt to any person by doing an act so rashly or negligently as to endanger either human life or the personal safety of others, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 2 years, or with fine extending up to 1000 rupees, or with both

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 339 - Wrongful Restraint

Whoever voluntarily obstructs any person so as to prevent that person from proceeding in any direction, in which that person has a right to proceed, is said wrongfully to restrain that person.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

There's an exception that if a person has lawful authority to stop someone from going towards a certain area then that won't be considered wrongful restraint.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 340 - Wrongful confinement

Whoever wrongfully restrains any person in such a manner as to prevent that person from proceeding beyond certain circumscribing limits, is said "wrongfully to confine" that person.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section explains about what is wrongful confinement, when a person wrongfully restrains (stops, prevents) another person from proceeding beyond a certain point is said to wrongfully confine that person. For eg. a boy of 20 years is restraining a boy of 12 years from going out of a certain area in order to bully him, he's said to have committed the offence of wrongful confinement.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 341 - Punishment for wrongful restraint

Whoever wrongfully restrains any person shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to one month, or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The offence of wrongful restraint defined under section 339 is punished under this section. This section states that whoever wrongfully restrains any person, shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term extending up to 1 month, or with fine extending up to 500 rupees, or with both. The penalty of simple imprisonment and not rigorous and that too for a short duration shows that the offence of wrongful restraint is not regarded as serious.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 342 - Punishment for wrongful confinement

Whoever wrongfully confines any person shall be punished with simple imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The essential elements of Wrongful Confinement are:
1) Wrongful restraint of a person or total restraint or complete deprivation of liberty without lawful justification. 
2) Such restraint must prevent the person from proceeding beyond certain circumscribing limits. Section 342 prescribes punishment for wrongful confinement, which may extend to imprisonment of either description for 1 year, or fine up to 500 rupees or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 343 - Wrongful confinement for three or more days

Whoever wrongfully confines any person for three days or more, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section prescribes penalty for wrongful confinement for three or more days. It says that whoever wrongfully confines any person for three days or more, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 2 years, or with fine, or with both. The offence under this section is quite serious is clear from the fact that even rigorous imprisonment up to 2 years could be awarded to the offender.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 344 - Wrongful confinement for ten or more days

Whoever wrongfully confines any person for ten days, or more, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section punishes wrongful confinement for ten or more days. It states that whoever wrongfully confines any person for ten days or more, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 3 years, and shall also be liable to fine. The offence under this section is a little more serious than that in the preceding section and consequently the penalty is also a little stiffer.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 345 - Wrongful confinement of person for whose liberation writ has been issued

Whoever keeps any person in wrongful confinement, knowing that a writ for the liberation of that person has been duly issued, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years in addition to any term of imprisonment to which he may be liable under any other section of this Chapter.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section punishes wrongful confinement of a person for whose liberation a writ has been issued. It states that whoever keeps any person in wrongful confinement with the knowledge that a writ for his liberation has been duly issued, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 2 years, and this term will be in addition to any term of imprisonment to which he may be liable under any other section of this chapter. The last part of the section makes the offence under this section quite serious. The prosecution must prove that the offender knew that a writ for the liberation of the person being wrongfully confined by him had been duly issued.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 346 - Wrongful confinement in secret

Whoever wrongfully confines any person in such manner as to indicate an intention that the confinement of such person may not be known to any person interested in the person so confined, or to any public servant, or that the place of such confinement may not be known to or discovered by any such person or public servant as hereinbefore mentioned, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years in addition to any other punishment to which he may be liable for such wrongful confinement.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Wrongful confinement in secret has been made punishable under this section. The section states that whoever wrongfully confines any person in such a manner as shows an intention on his part that no one interested in him may know that he is being confined, or any public servant may not know that he is being confined, or such abovementioned person or public servant may not know or discover the place of such confinement, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 2 years, and this period will be in addition to any other punishment to which he may be liable for such wrongful confinement. The last part of this section too, like that of the preceding section, makes the offence under this section quite serious

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 347 - Wrongful confinement to extort property, or constrain to illegal act

Whoever wrongfully confines any person for the purpose of extorting from the person confined, or from any person interested in the person confined, any property or valuable security or of constraining the person confined or any person interested in such person to do anything illegal or to give any information which may facilitate the commission of an offence, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Wrongful confinement to extort property, or constrain to illegal act has been made a punishable offence under this section. The section states that whoever wrongfully confines any person for the purpose of extorting either from him, or from any person who is interested in the person who has been confined, any property or valuable security or of constraining the person confined or any person interested in him either to do anything illegal or to give any information which may facilitate the commission of an offence, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 3 years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 348 - Wrongful confinement to extort confession, or compel restoration of property

Whoever wrongfully confines any person for the purpose of extorting from the person confined or any person interested in the person confined any confession or any information which may lead to the detection of an offence or misconduct, or for the purpose of constraining the person confined or any person interested in the person confined to restore or to cause the restoration of any property or valuable security or to satisfy any claim or demand, or to give information which may lead to the restoration of any property or valuable security, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section requires the proof that a person has been wrongfully confined and the purpose of this must be to extort from him or anyone interested in him any confession or information which may lead to the detection of an offence or misconduct, or to constrain the person confined or anyone interested in him to restore or cause the restoration of any property or valuable security or to satisfy any claim or demand, or to give information which may lead to the restoration of any property or valuable security. Punishment will be imprisonment which can extend to a period of 3 years and also be liable for fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 349 - Force

A person is said to use force to another if he causes motion, change of motion, or cessation of motion to that other, or if he causes to any substance such motion, or change of motion, or cessation of motion as brings that substance into contact with any part of that other's body, or with anything which that other is wearing or carrying, or with anything so situated that such contact affects that other's sense of feeling: Provided that the person causing the motion, or change of motion, or cessation of motion, causes that motion, change of motion, or cessation of motion in one of the three ways hereinafter described:
First.-By his own bodily power.
Secondly.-By disposing any substance in such a manner that the motion or change or cessation of motion takes place without any further act on his part, or on the part of any other person.
Thirdly.-By inducing any animal to move, to change its motion, or to cease to move.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Section 349 of the Code merely explains what amounts to ‘force’ but it does not constitute any offence. An understanding of the term ‘force’ is necessary to understand the definition of ‘criminal force’ and ‘assault’. ‘Force’ as defined in clause (i) of Section 349 of the Code contemplates the presence of the person to whom it is used that is to say, it contemplates the presence of the person the force and of the person to whom the force is used. Thus, a motion or change of motion or cessation of motion caused to property without affecting a human being is not the ‘use of force to another; within the meaning of Section 349.
The term ‘force’ has been defined in minute detail in this section. To put the entire first paragraph in one sentence: force is the exertion of energy or strength producing a movement or change in the external world. The second paragraph merely deals with a situation, where some other body is interposed between the person using the force and the person on whom the force is used.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 350 - Criminal Force

Whoever intentionally uses force to any person, without that person's consent, in order to the committing of any offence, or intending by the use of such force to cause, or knowing it to be likely that by the use of such force he will cause injury, fear or annoyance to the person to whom the force is used, is said to use criminal force to that other.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The ingredients of Section 350 of the Code are:
i) The intentional use of the force to any person;
ii) Such force must have been used without the person’s consent;
iii) The force must have been used:
a) In order to the committing of an offence; or
b) With the intention to cause, or knowing it to be likely that it will cause, injury, fear or annoyance to the person to whom it is used. 

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 351 - Assault

Whoever makes any gesture, or any preparation intending or knowing it to be likely that such gesture or preparation will cause any person present to apprehend that he who makes that gesture or preparation is about to use criminal force to that person,is said to commit an assault.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

An assault is (a) an attempt unlawfully to apply any of the least actual force to the person of another directly or indirectly; (b) the act of using a gesture towards another, giving him reasonable grounds to believe that the person using that gesture meant to apply such actual force to his person as aforesaid; (c) the act of depriving another of his liberty, in either case, without the consent of the person assaulted, or with such consent if it is obtained by fraud.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 352 - Punishment for assault or criminal force otherwise than on grave provocation

Whoever assaults or uses criminal force to any person otherwise than on grave and sudden provocation given by that person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three months, or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Grave and sudden provocation will not lessen the penalty for an offence under this section if the provocation is sought or voluntarily provoked by the offender as an excuse for the offence, or if it is given by anything done while obeying the law, or by a public servant in the lawful exercise of the powers of such public servant, or if it is given by anything done in the lawful exercise of the right of private defence. The person shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 3 months, or with fine extending up to 500 rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 353 - Assault or criminal force to deter public servant from discharge of his duty

Whoever assaults or uses criminal force to any person being a public servant in the execution of his duty as such public servant, or with intent to prevent or deter that person from discharging his duty as such public servant, or in consequence of anything done or attempted to be done by such person to the lawful discharge of his duty as such public servant, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

There must be an assault or use of criminal force to a public servant either in the execution of his duties in that capacity, or with the intention to prevent or deter him from discharging his duty in that capacity, or in consequence of anything done or attempted to be done by him in the lawful discharge of his duty in that capacity. The person shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 354 - Assault or criminal force to woman with intent to outrage her modesty

Whoever assaults or uses criminal force to any woman, intending to outrage or knowing it to be likely that he will there byoutrage her modesty, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section punishes an assault on, or use of criminal force to, a woman with the intention of outraging her modesty or with the knowledge that it is likely that he will thereby outrage her modesty. The section says that whoever assaults or uses criminal force to any woman with the intention of outraging her modesty or with the knowledge that it is likely that he will thereby outrage her modesty, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 354A - Sexual Harassment and punishment for sexual harassment

  • 1.A man committing any of the following acts:
  • (i)physical contact and advances involving unwelcome and explicit sexual overtures; or
  • (ii)a demand or request for sexual favours; or
  • (iii)showing pornography against the will of a woman; or
  • (iv)making sexually coloured remarks, shall be guilty of the offence of sexual harassment.
  • 2.Any man who commits the offence specified in clause (i) or clause (ii) or clause (iii) of sub-section (1) shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.
  • 3.Any man who commits the offence specified in clause (iv) of sub-section (1) shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

  • 1.If any man commits the following acts:
  • (i)physical contact and advances involving unwelcome and explicit sexual overtures; or
  • (ii)a demand or request for sexual favours; or
  • (iii)showing pornography against the will of a woman; or
  • (iv)making sexually coloured remarks, shall be guilty of the offence of sexual harassment.
  • 2.If any man who commits the offence specified in clause (i) or clause (ii) or clause (iii) of sub-section (1) shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.
  • 3.If any man who commits the offence specified in clause (iv) of sub-section (1) shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 354B - Assault or use of criminal force to woman with intent to disrobe

Any man who assaults or uses criminal force to any woman or abets such act with the intention of disrobing or compelling her to be naked, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which shall not be less than three years but which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Any man who assaults or uses criminal force to any woman or abets such act with the intention of disrobing or compelling her to be naked, shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than three years but which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 354C - Voyeurism

Any man who watches, or captures the image of a woman engaging in a private act in circumstances where she would usually have the expectation of not being observed either by the perpetrator or by any other person at the behest of the perpetrator or disseminates such image shall be punished on first conviction with imprisonment of either description for a term which shall not be less than one year, but which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine, and be punished on a second or subsequent conviction, with imprisonment of either description for a term which shall not be less than three years, but which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

 

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

If any man who watches, or captures the image of a woman engaging in a private act in circumstances where she would usually expect not to be observed either by the offender or by any other person on the behalf of the offender or

If such an offender distributes such image then

  • he shall be punished  with imprisonment of either description for a term which shall not be less than one year, but which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine on the first convicton, and
  • shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which will not be less than three years, but which may extend to seven years and shall also be liable to fine on a second or subsequent conviction.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 354D - Stalking

(1) Any man who—   
(i)follows a woman and contacts, or attempts to contact such woman to foster personal interaction repeatedly despite a clear indication of disinterest by such woman; or
(ii)monitors the use by a woman of the internet, email or any other form of electronic communication,commits the offence of stalking;

Provided that such conduct shall not amount to stalking if the man who pursued it proves that—
   (i)it was pursued for the purpose of preventing or detecting crime and the man accused of stalking had been entrusted with the responsibility of prevention and detection of crime by the State; or


  (ii)it was pursued under any law or to comply with any condition or requirement imposed by any person under any law; or

 (iii)in the particular circumstances such conduct was reasonable and justified.

(2) Whoever commits the offence of stalking shall be punished on first conviction with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine; and be punished on a second or subsequent conviction, with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

(1) If any man who—   
(i)follows a woman and contacts, or attempts to contact such woman to encourage personal interaction repeatedly despite a clear indication of disinterest by such woman; or
(ii)monitors the use by a woman of the internet, email or any other form of electronic communication,commits the offence of stalking;

Provided that such conduct shall not amount to stalking if the man who pursued it proves that—
   (i)it was pursued for the purpose of preventing or detecting crime and the man accused of stalking had been entrusted with the responsibility of prevention and detection of crime by the State; or


  (ii)it was pursued under any law or to comply with any condition or requirement imposed by any person under any law; or

 (iii)in the particular circumstances such conduct was reasonable and justified.

(2) Whoever commits the offence of stalking shall be punished  with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine on first conviction and be punished , with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years, and shall also be liable to fine on on a second or subsequent conviction.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 355 - Assault or criminal force with an intent to dishonor person, otherwise than on grave provocation.

Whoever assaults or uses criminal force to any person, intending thereby to dishonour that person, otherwise than on grave and sudden provocation given by that person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either de­scription for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whoever assaults or uses criminal force to any person, intending thereby to dishonour that person, otherwise than on grave and sudden provocation given by that person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either de­scription for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 356 - Assault or criminal force in attempt to commit theft of property carried by a person

Whoever assaults or uses criminal force to any person, in attempting to commit theft on any property which that person is then wearing or carrying shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section punishes assault or use of criminal force in attempt to commit theft of property wore or carried by a person. The section says that whoever assaults or uses criminal force to any person, in his attempt to commit theft of any such property which that person is then wearing or carrying, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 2 years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 357 - Assault or criminal force in attempt wrongfully to confine a person

Whoever assaults or uses criminal force to any person, in attempting wrongfully to confine that person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section penalises assault or use of criminal force in attempt wrongfully to confine a person. It states that whoever assaults or uses criminal force to any person in attempting to wrongfully confine that person, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 1 year, or with fine extending up to 1000 rupees, or with both. There must be an attempt to commit wrongful confinement of a person and in doing so the offender must either assault or use criminal force against the victim.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 358 - Assault or criminal force on grave provocation

Whoever assaults or uses criminal force to any person on grave and sudden provocation given by that person, shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to one month, or with fine which may extend to two hundred rupees, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Assault or use of criminal force on grave and sudden provocation has been made punishable by this section. It says that whoever assaults or uses criminal force to any person on grave and sudden provocation given by that person, shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term extending up to one month, or with fine extending up to two hundred rupees, or with both. The explanation attached to the section says that this section is subject to the same explanation as section 352 of the Code.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 359 - Kidnapping

Kidnapping is of two kinds : kidnapping from [India], and kidnapping from lawful guardianship.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Kidnapping is of two kinds : kidnapping from [India], and kidnapping from lawful guardianship.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 360 - Kidnapping from India

Whoever conveys any person beyond the limits of [India] without the consent of that person, or of some person legally authorized to consent on behalf of that person, is said to kidnap that person from [India].

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section defines the offence of kidnapping from India. It says that whoever conveys any person beyond the limits of India without the consent of that person or of some person who is authorised to consent on his behalf, is said to kidnap that person, from India. This offence is committed when, according to the section a person is conveyed beyond the limits of India without consent of the victim or without the consent of someone who is authorised to give consent on his behalf. No age of the victim has been mentioned by the section.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 361 - Kidnapping from lawful guardianship

Whoever takes or entices any minor under [sixteen] years of age if a male, or under [eighteen] years of age if a female, or any person of unsound mind, out of the keeping of the lawful guardian of such minor or person of unsound mind, without the consent of such guardian, is said to kidnap such minor or person from lawful guardianship.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

To constitute an offence under Section 361:
1) There must be taking or enticing of a minor or of a person of unsound mind;
2) The minor must be under 16 years of age, if a male, or under 18 years of age, if a female;
3) The taking or enticing must be out of the keeping of the lawful guardian of the minor or person of unsound mind; and
4) The taking or enticing must be without the consent of such guardian.
The object of Section 361 is at least as much to protect children of tender age from being abducted or seduced for improper purposes as for the protection of the rights of parents and guardians.
The offence of kidnapping from lawful guardianship arises when a minor, under 16 in the case of a male or under 18 in the case of a female is taken or enticed from the keeping of the lawful guardian. 

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 362 - Abduction

Whoever by force compels, or by any deceitful means induces any person to go from any place, is said to abduct that person.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

If anyone by force compels, or by any deceitful means prompts any person to go from any place, is said to abduct that person.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 363 - Punishment for kidnapping

Whoever kidnaps any person from [India] or from lawful guardianship, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section lays down the punishment for the offences of kidnapping from India and kidnapping from lawful guardianship. It says that whoever kidnaps any person from India or from lawful guardianship, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 7 years, and shall also be liable to fine. The offences defined under sections 360 and 361 have both been made punishable under this section.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 363A - Kidnapping or maiming a minor for purposes of begging

(1) Whoever kidnaps any minor or, not being the lawful guardian of a minor, obtains the custody of the minor, in order that such minor may be employed or used for the purposes of begging shall be punishable with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.
(2) Whoever maims any minor in order that such minor may be employed or used for the purposes of begging shall be punishable with imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.
(3) Where any person, not being the lawful guardian of a minor, employs or uses such minor for the purposes of begging, it shall be presumed, unless the contrary is proved, that he kidnapped or otherwise obtained the custody of that minor in order that the minor might be employed or used for the purposes of begging.
(4) In this section,-
(a) "begging" means-
(i) soliciting or receiving alms in a public place,
whether under the pretence of singing, dancing,
fortunetelling, performing tricks or selling articles or
otherwise;
(ii) entering on any private premises for the purpose of soliciting or receiving alms;
(iii) exposing or exhibiting, with the object of
obtaining or extorting alms, any sore, wound, injury,
deformity or disease, whether of himself or of any other person or of an animal;
(iv) using a minor as an exhibit for the purpose of
soliciting or receiving alms;
(b) "minor" means-
(i) in the case of a male, a person under sixteen years
of age; and
(ii) in the case of a female, a person under eighteen
years of age.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section punishes kidnapping or maiming a minor for the purpose of begging. Clause (1) of this section says that whoever kidnaps any minor, or if he is not the lawful guardian of the minor obtains the minor’s custody, in order that such minor may either be employed or used for the purposes of begging, shall be punishable with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine. According to clause (2) of the section, whoever maims any minor in order that such minor may either be employed or used for the purpose of begging shall be punishable with imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine. Clause (3) of the section states that where a person who is not the lawful guardian of a minor either employs or uses such minor for the purposes of begging, in the absence of proof to the contrary it shall be presumed that he either kidnapped or otherwise obtained the custody of that minor in order that the minor might be employed or used for the purposes of begging. Clause 4 (a) of the section defines ‘begging’ and says that ‘begging’ means (i) either soliciting or receiving alms in a public place, whether under the pretense of singing, dancing, fortune-telling, performing tricks or selling articles or otherwise, (ii) entering on any private premises for the purposes of either soliciting or receiving alms; (iii) exposing or exhibiting, with the object of obtaining or extorting alms, any sore, wound, injury, deformity or disease, whether of himself or of any other person or of an animal; (iv) using a minor as an exhibit for the purpose of either soliciting or receiving alms. Clause 4 (b) of the section defines minor and says that a ‘minor’ means (i) a boy under sixteen years of age and (ii) a girl under eighteen years of age.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 364 - Kidnapping or abducting in order to murder

Whoever kidnaps or abducts any person in order that such person may be murdered or may be so disposed of as to be put in danger of being murdered, shall be punished with [imprisonment for life] or rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if a person kidnaps someone in order to commit murder or if there is a danger of being murdered than such person shall be punished with imprisonment for life which can extend to 10 years and also be liable for fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 364A - Kidnapping for ransom, etc

Whoever kidnaps or abducts any person or keeps a person in detention after such kidnapping or abduction, and threatens to cause death or hurt to such person, or by his conduct gives rise to a reasonable appreension that such person may be put to death or hurt, or causes hurt or death to such person in order to compel the Government or any foreign State or international inter-governmental organisation or any other person to do or abstain from doing any act or to pay a ransom, shall be punishable with death or imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section penalises kidnapping or abduction for ransom etc. It states that whoever either kidnaps or abducts any person or keeps a person in detention after such kidnapping or abduction, and threatens to cause either death or hurt to such person, or by his conduct gives rise to a reasonable apprehension that such person may be put to death or hurt, or causes death or hurt to such person in order to compel either the government or any foreign state of International, inter-governmental organisation or any other person to do or to abstain from doing any act or to pay a ransom, shall be punishable with death, or imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 365 - Kidnapping or abducting with intent secretly and wrongfully to confine person

Whoever kidnaps or abducts any person with intent to cause that person to be secretly and wrongfully confined, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section punishes kidnapping or abducting with intent secretly and wrongfully to confine a person. It says that whoever either kidnaps or abducts any person with the intention of causing that person to be secretly and wrongfully confined, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 7 years, and shall also be liable to fine. As is clear from the language of the section, the prosecution must prove that the intention of the kidnapper or the abductor, as the case may be, was to cause secret and wrongful confinement of the victim.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 366 - Kidnapping, abducting or inducing woman to compel her marriage, etc

Whoever kidnaps or abducts any woman with intent that she may be compelled, or knowing it to be likely that she will be compelled, to marry any person against her will, or in order that she may be forced or seduced to illicit intercourse, or knowing it to be likely that she will be forced or seduced to illicit intercourse, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine; [and whoever, by means of criminal intimidation as defined in this Code or of abuse of authority or any other method of compulsion, induces any woman to go from any place with intent that she may be, or knowing that it is likely that she will be, forced or seduced to illicit intercourse with another person shall also be punishable as aforesaid].

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section punishes kidnapping, abducting or inducing a woman to compel her marriage etc. It says that whoever either kidnaps or abducts any woman with the intention that she may be compelled, or with the knowledge that it was likely that she will be compelled, to marry any person against her will, or in order that she may either be forced or seduced to illicit intercourse, or with the knowledge that it was likely that she will either be forced or seduced to illicit intercourse, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine; and whoever, either by means of criminal intimidation as defined under section 503 of the Indian Penal Code or of abuse of authority or any other method of compulsion, induces any woman to go from any place with the intention that she may be, or with the knowledge that it is likely that she will be, either forced or seduced to illicit intercourse with another person, shall also be punishable with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 10 years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 366A - Procuration of minor girl

Whoever, by any means whatsoever, induces any minor girl under the age of eighteen years to go from any place or to do any act with intent that such girl may be, or knowing that it is likely that she will be, forced or seduced to illicit intercourse with another person shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section makes procuration of a minor girl a punishable offence. It states that whoever by any means whatsoever induces any minor girl under the age of eighteen years to go from any place or to do any act with the intention that such girl may be forced or seduced to illicit intercourse with another person or with the knowledge that it is likely that she will be forced or seduced to illicit intercourse with another person, shall be punishable with imprisonment extending up to 10 years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 366B - Importation of girl from foreign country

Whoever imports into [India] from any country outside India [or from the State of Jammu and Kashmir] any girl under the age of twenty-one years with intent that she may be, or knowing it to be likely that she will be, forced or seduced to illicit intercourse with another person, shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.]

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section punishes importing a girl under twenty one years of age from a foreign country or from the State of Jammu and Kashmir with certain intention or knowledge. It says that whoever imports into India from any country outside India or from the State of Jammu and Kashmir any girl under twenty-one years of age with the intention that she may be either forced or seduced to illicit intercourse with another person or with the knowledge that it is likely that she will be either forced or seduced to illicit intercourse with another person, shall be punishable with imprisonment extending up to 10 years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 367 - Kidnapping or abducting in order to subject person to grievous hurt, slavery, etc

Whoever kidnaps or abducts any person in order that such person may be subjected, or may be so disposed of as to be put in danger of being subjected to grievous hurt, or slavery, or to the unnatural lust of any person, or knowing it to be likely that such person will be so subjected or disposed of, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section penalises kidnapping or abducting in order to subject a person to grievous hurt, slavery or unnatural lust. It states that whoever either kidnaps or abducts any person in order that such person may either be subjected or may be so disposed of as to be put in danger of being subjected to grievous hurt, or slavery, or to unnatural lust of any person, or with the knowledge that it is likely that such person will be so subjected or disposed of, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 368 - Wrongfully concealing or keeping in confinement, kidnapped or abducted person

Whoever, knowing that any person has been kidnapped or has been abducted, wrongfully conceals or confines such person, shall be punished in the same manner as if he had kidnapped or abducted such person with the same intention or knowledge, or for the same purpose as that with or for which he conceals or detains such person in confinement.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section punishes wrongfully concealing or keeping in confinement a kidnapped or abducted person. It states that whoever, with the knowledge that any person has been kidnapped or abducted, either wrongfully conceals or confines such person, shall be punished in the same manner as if he had either kidnapped or abducted such person with the same intention or knowledge, or for the same purpose as that with or for which he conceals or detains such person in confinement. The section is attracted when there is wrongful concealment or confinement of a victim with the knowledge that the victim has been kidnapped or abducted. The punishment of the offender under this section shall be in the same manner as if the victim had been kidnapped or abducted with the same intention or knowledge or for the same purpose as that with or for which the offender conceals or detains the victim in confinement.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 369 - Kidnapping or abducting child under ten years with intent to steal from its person

Whoever kidnaps or abducts any child under the age of ten years with the intention of taking dishonestly any movable property from the person of such child, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section penalises kidnapping or abduction of a child under ten years with the intention of stealing something from the person of the child. It says that whoever either kidnaps or abducts any child under the age of ten years with the intention of dishonestly taking any movable property from the person of that child, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 7 years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 370 - Trafficking of person

Whoever, for the purpose of exploitation, (a) recruits, (b) transports, ( c) harbours, (d) transfers, or (e) receives, a person or persons, by—
 First.-  using threats, or                              Secondly.-using force, or any other form of coercion, or
Thirdly.- by abduction, or                                                   Fourthly.-by practising fraud, or deception, or
Fifthly.-by abuse of power, or
Sixthly.- by inducement, including the giving or receiving of payments or benefits, in order to achieve the consent of any person having control over the person recruited, transported, harboured, transferred or received,
        commits the offence of trafficking.

        Explanations
        1. The expression “exploitation” shall include any act of physical exploitation or any form of sexual exploitation, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude, or the forced removal of organs.
        2. The consent of the victim is immaterial in determination of the offence of trafficking.
    (2)Whoever commits the offence of trafficking shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than seven years, but which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.
   (3) Where the offence involves the trafficking of more than one person, it shall be punishable with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than ten years but which may extend to imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.
  (4)  Where the offence involves the trafficking of a minor, it shall be punishable with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than ten years, but which may extend to imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.
  (5)  Where the offence involves the trafficking of more than one minor, it shall be punishable with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than fourteen years, but which may extend to imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.
  (6)  If a person is convicted of the offence of trafficking of minor on more than one occasion, then such person shall be punished with imprisonment for life, which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person’s natural life, and shall also be liable to fine.                                                                     (7)  When a public servant or a police officer is involved in the trafficking of any person then, such public servant or police officer shall be punished with imprisonment for life, which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person’s natural life, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if any person acquires another person for transfer, harbours, recruits, transport or receives by using threats, or by using force (any other form of coercion) by abduction, or by practicing fraud, by abuse of power  by induceemnt or by giving any payment, the person is said to commit the offence of trafficking, such person shall be punished with the imprisonment for a term not less than 7 years which can extend to 10 years and also fine. if the offence involves trafficking of more than 1 person then punishment would be for 10 years which can extend up to life time imprisonment, if trafficking a minor then the punishment will be 10 years imprisonment which can extend upto life time imprisonment and fine, if a convicted offender of minor trafficking is caught then he shall be punished for his remaining natural life and sahll also be liable for fine., and if any public officer is involved then he shall be punished with imprisonment for his remaining natural life and shall also be liable for fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 370A - Exploitation of a trafficked person


  1  Whoever, knowingly or having reason to believe that a minor has been trafficked, engages such minor for sexual exploitation in any manner, shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than five years, but which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.
  2  Whoever, knowingly by or having reason to believe that a person has been trafficked, engages such person for sexual exploitation in any manner, shall be punished With rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than three years, but which may extend to five years, and shall also be liable to fine.
 

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

First part of this section means if a person is having knowledge about a minor who has been trafficked and engaged in any sexual activity to such a minor, that person shall be punished with rigirous imprisonment for a term not less than 5 years and which can extend up to7 years and shall also be liable for fine. Second part of this section means if a person having knowledge that a person has been trafficked and he engages that person in any sexual activity, then the person doing so shall be liable for rigorous imprisonment for a period of 3 years which can extend up to 5 years and shall also be liable for fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 371 - Habitual dealing in slaves

Whoever habitually imports, exports, removes, buys, sells traffics or deals in slaves, shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], or with imprisonment of either description for a term not exceeding ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Habitual dealing in slaves has been made a punishable offence under this section. The section states that whoever habitually imports, exports, removes, buys, traffics or deals in slaves, shall be punished with imprisonment for life or with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 372 - Selling minor for purposes of prostitution, etc

Whoever sells, lets to hire, or otherwise disposes of any [person under the age of eighteen years with intent that such person shall at any age be employed or used for the purpose of prostitution or illicit
intercourse with any person or for any unlawful and immoral purpose, or knowing it to be likely that such person will at any age be] employed or used for any such purpose, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Selling or letting to hire etc. of a minor for prostitution etc. has been made a punishable offence under this section. The section says that whoever either sells, or lets to hire, or otherwise disposes of any person under eighteen years of age with the intention that such person shall at any age be either employed or used for the purpose of prostitution or illicit intercourse with any person or for any unlawful or immoral purpose, or with the knowledge that it is likely that such person will at any age be either employed or used for any such purpose, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 10 years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 373 - Buying minor for purposes of prostitution, etc

Whoever buys, hires or otherwise obtains possession of any [person under the age of eighteen years with intent that such person shall at any age be employed or used for the purpose of prostitution or illicit intercourse with any person or for any unlawful and immoral purpose, or knowing it to be likely that such person will at any age be] employed or used for any such purpose, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section is complementary to the preceding section and penalises buying, hiring or otherwise obtaining possession of a minor for the purpose of prostitution etc. It says that whoever buys, hires or otherwise obtains possession of any person under the age of eighteen years with the intention that such person at any age be either employed or used for the purpose of either prostitution or for illicit intercourse with any person or for any unlawful and immoral purpose, or with the knowledge that it is likely that such person at any age will be so employed or used, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 10 years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 374 - Unlawful compulsory labour

Whoever unlawfully compels any person to labour against the will of that person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Section 374 is intended to put a stop on the continuous practice of forced labour. It requires:
(i) Unlawful compulsion of any person;
(ii) The unlawful compulsion must be to make the person work against the will of that person.                                          

Punishment will be for a term which can be extended for a period of 1 year, or fine, or both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 375 - Rape

A man is said to commit "rape" if he-
(a) Penetrates his penis, to any extent, into the vagina, mouth, urethra or anus of a woman or makes her to do so with him or any other person; or          (b) inserts, to any extent, any object or a part of the body, not being the penis, into the vagina, the urethera or anus of a woman or makes her to do so with him or any other person; or                             (c) manipulates any part of the body of a woman so as to cause penetration into the vagina, urethera, anus or any part of body of such woman or makes her to do so with him or any other person; or         (d) applies his mouth to the vagina, anus, urethera of a woman or makes her to do so with him or any other person,                                                    

under the circumstances falling under any of the following seven descriptions:-
First.-Against her will.
Secondly.-Without her consent.
Thirdly.-With her consent, when her consent has been obtained by putting her or any person in whom she is interested, in fear of death or of hurt.
Fourthly.-With her consent, when the man knows that he is not her husband, and that her consent is given because she believes that he is another man to whom she is or believes herself to be lawfully married.
Fifthly.-With her consent, when, at the time of giving such consent, by reason of unsoundness of mind or intoxication or the administration by him personally or through another of any stupefying or unwholesome substance, she is unable to understand the nature and consequences of that to which she gives consent.
Sixthly.-With or without her consent, when she is under eighteen years of age.                                     Seventhly.- When she is unable to communicate consent.      Provided that a women who soes not physically resist to the act of penetration shall not by the reason only of that fact, be regarded as consenting to the sexual activity.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section talks about Rape, A man is said to commit rape, if he touches his male organ on female body parts or makes her do so with someone else, if he inserts any object in any part of female body, or makes her do so with someone else, manuplates any part of woman body so as to cause penetration into woman's body part, or applies his mouth to her body parts all these will consitute rape under following discriptions, First, against her will, Secondly if done without woman's consent, Thirdly, with her consent when such consent is taken under the threat of someone's life woman intrested in, fourthly, with her consent when the man knows he's not her husband, but she gives consent under the belief of him being her lawful husband, Fifthly with her consent when during such consent she's giving consent by unsoundness of mind, or intoxication, when she's unable to understand the nature and consequences of the act for which she gave consent, Sixthly with or without consent when woman is under the age of Eighteen years, Seventhly when she's unable to communicate consent, also proviso says; if a woman doesn't physically resist the act of penetration it cannot be said that she's giving consent to the sexual activity.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 376 - Punishment for Rape

Whoever, except in the cases provided for in sub-section (2), commits rape, shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment of either description for a term which shall not be less than seven years, but which may extend to imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.
  (2) Whoever—
     (a) being a police officer, commits rape,
        (i)  within the limits of the police station to which such police officer is appointed; or
        (ii)  in the premises of any station house; or
         (iii) on a woman in such police officer’s custody or in the custody of a police officer subordinate to such police officer; or
      (b) being a public servant, commits rape on a woman in such public servant’s custody or in the custody of a public servant subordinate to such public servant; or
      (c) being a member of the armed forces deployed in an area by the Central or a State Government commits rape in such area; or
     (d) being on the management or on the staff of a jail, remand home or other place of custody established by or under any law for the time being in force or of a women’s or children’s institution, commits rape on any inmate of such jail, remand home, place or institution; or
    (e) being on the management or on the staff of a hospital, commits rape on a woman in that hospital; or
    (f)  being a relative, guardian or teacher of, or a person in a position of trust or authority towards the woman, commits rape on such woman; or
    (g) commits rape during communal or sectarian violence; or
     (h) commits rape on a woman knowing her to be pregnant; or
    (i) commits rape on a woman when she is under sixteen years of age; or
     (j) commits rape, on a woman incapable of giving consent; or
     (k) being in a position of control or dominance over a woman, commits rape on such woman; or
    (l) commits rape on a woman suffering from mental or physical disability; or
     (m) while committing rape causes grievous bodily harm or maims or disfigures or endangers the life of a woman; or
      (n) commits rape repeatedly on the same woman,

shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than ten years, but which may extend to imprisonment for life, which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person’s natural life, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section deals with punishment for Rape, which is imprisonment for a period of not less than 7 years which can extend up to imprisonment for life and shall also be liable to pay fine, sub section (2) talks about punishment under special circumstances like, if being a police officer the person commits rape within limits of the police station where such officer is appointed, in the premises of police station, or when keeping a woman in custody whether under him or any such police officer who is subordinate to him, if a public servant commits rape , or if being a member of armed forces deployed in such area (where he commits rape) by central or state government, if on the management or staff of the jail, remand home or other place of custody established by or under any law or a woman's or children's institution, commits rape on any inmate of such jail, or remand room etc or if on the management staff of hospital commits rape on woman in that hospital, or if a relative, guardian, teacher or such person in position of trust or authority towards that woman commits rape, or if commits rape during communal or sectarian violence, or commits rape on a pregnant woman, or commits rape when woman is under sixteen years of age, or one who is incapable of giving consent, or one who is in control or dominance of such woman and such a woman is suffering from mental or physical disability, if causes grevious bodily harm or endangers a woman's life, or commits rape repeatedly on same woman; then such a person shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than 10 years, and can extend up to imprisonment for life, which shall mean natural life of that person, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 376A - Punishment for causing death or resulting in persistent vegetative state of victim

Whoever, commits an offence punishable under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) of section 376 and in the course of such commission inflicts an injury which causes the death of the woman or causes the woman to be in a persistent vegetative state, shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than twenty years, but which may extend to imprisonment for life, which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person’s natural life, or with death. 

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means whoever commits rape under sub section (1) & (2) of section 376, causes such injury to a woman that she remains in presistent vegetative state or dies,  then such an offendershall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a period which shall not be less than 20 years but which can extend to life imprisonment meaning imprisonment for the remainder of that person’s natural life, or with death.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 376B - Sexual intercourse by husband upon his wife during separation

Whoever has sexual intercourse with his own wife, who is living separately, whether under a decree of separation or otherwise, without her consent, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which shall not be less than two years but which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if a husband having sexual intercourse with his wife without her consent who is living seperately whether under the decree of seperation or otherwise, he shall be punished with imprisonment for a period of 2 years which can extend up to 7 years and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 376C - Sexual intercourse by a person in authority

Whoever, being—

(a) in a position of authority or in a fiduciary relationship; or

(b)a public servant; or                          

 (c)superintendent or manager of a jail, remand home or other place of custody established by or under any law for the time being in force, or a women’s or children’s institution; or

(d) on the management of a hospital or being on the staff of a hospital, abuses such position or fiduciary relationship to induce or seduce any woman either in his custody or under his charge or present in the premises to have sexual intercourse with him, such sexual intercourse not amounting to the offence of rape, shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment of either description for a term which shall not be less than 5 years, but which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section talks about any person who is in a position of authority, or a public servant, or superintendent or manager of jail, remand home or other place of custody, or a woman's or children institution, or a member of staff of hospital, under his custody induces or seduces to have sexual intercourse not amounting to rape shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term of 5 years, which can extend to 10 years and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 376D - Gang Rape

Where a woman is raped by one or more persons constituting a group or acting in furtherance of a common intention, each of those persons shall be deemed to have committed the offence of rape and shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than twenty years, but which may extend to life which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person’s natural life, and with fine;Provided that such fine shall be just and reasonable to meet the medical expenses and rehabilitation of the victim;Provided further that any fine imposed under this section shall be paid to the victim.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if a woman is raped by 1 or more than 1 person constituting a group, or acting in futherance of a common intention, then each of them will be deemed to have committed the offence of rape and each of them shall be liable for imprisonment for a period of not less than 20 years which can extend to life time imprisonment, and they will have to pay fine which shall be utilozed for treatment and rehabilitation of the victim.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 376E - Punishment for repeat offenders

Whoever has been previously convicted of an offence punishable under section 376 or section 376A or section 376D and is subsequently convicted of an offence punishable under any of the said sections shall be punished with imprisonment for life which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person’s natural life, or with death. 

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section means if a person who has previously been convicted of an offence punishable under section 376 or 376A to  376D shall be punished with imprisonment for his remaining natural life, or with death.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 377 - Unnatural Offences

Whoever voluntarily has carnal intercourse against the order of nature with any man, woman or animal, shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section makes unnatural offences punishable under the Code. It says that whoever voluntarily has carnal intercourse against the order of nature with any man, woman or animal, shall be punished with imprisonment for life, or with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to 10 years, and shall also be liable to fine. The explanation attached to this section states that penetration is sufficient to constitute the carnal intercourse necessary to the offence under this section.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 378 - Theft

Whoever, intending to take dishonestly any movable property out of the possession of any person without that person's consent, moves that property in order to such taking, is said to commit theft.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whoever, with the intention of taking dishonestly any movable property out of the possession of any person without the consent of that person, moves that property in order to such taking, is said to commit theft. There are five explanations attached to this section the first of which states that as long as a thing is attached to the earth, it is not a movable property and is, therefore, not the subject of theft; but as soon as it is severed from the earth, it becomes capable of being the subject of theft.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 379 - Punishment for theft

Whoever commits theft shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

 It states that whoever commits theft shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to three years, or with fine, or with both

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 380 - Theft in dwelling house, etc

Whoever commits theft in any building, tent or vessel, which building, tent or vessel is used as a human dwelling, or used for the custody of property, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section says that whoever commits theft in any building, tent or vessel which is used as a human dwelling or for custody of property, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 381 - Theft by clerk or servant of property in possession of master

Whoever, being a clerk or servant, or being employed in the capacity of a clerk or servant, commits theft in respect of any property in the possession of his master or employer, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section punishes theft committed by a clerk or servant of property in possession of the master. It says that whoever either being a clerk or servant, or being employed in the capacity of a clerk or servant, commits theft of property in possession of his master or employer, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine. 

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 382 - Theft after preparation made for causing death, hurt or restraint in order to the committing of the theft

Whoever commits theft, having made preparation for causing death, or hurt, or restraint, or fear of death, or of hurt, or of restraint, to any person, in order to the committing of such theft, or in order to the effecting of his escape after the committing of such theft or in order to the retaining of property taken by such theft, shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section punishes theft after preparation is made for causing death, hurt or restraint in order to the committing of the theft. It says that whoever commits theft, having made preparation for causing either death, or hurt, or restraint, or fear of death, or of hurt, or of restraint, to any person in order to either committing of such theft, or in order to the effecting of his escape after such theft is committed, or in order to the retaining of property taken by such theft, shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment extending up to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine. The two illustrations adequately illustrate the section.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 383 - Extortion

Whoever intentionally puts any person in fear of any injury to that person, or to any other, and thereby dishonestly induces the person so put in fear to deliver to any person any property, or valuable security or anything signed or sealed which may be converted into a valuable security, commits "extortion".

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section punishes theft after preparation is made for causing death, hurt or restraint in order to the committing of the theft. It says that whoever commits theft, having made preparation for causing either death, or hurt, or restraint, or fear of death, or of hurt, or of restraint, to any person in order to either committing of such theft, or in order to the effecting of his escape after such theft is committed, or in order to the retaining of property taken by such theft, shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment extending up to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine. The two illustrations adequately illustrate the section.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 384 - Punishment for Extortion

Whoever commits extortion shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Anyone who commits extortion shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 385 - Putting person in fear of injury in order to commit extortion

Whoever, in order to the committing of extortion, puts any person in fear, or attempts to put any person in fear, of any injury, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section states that whoever either puts or attempt to put any person in fear of injury in order to the committing of extortion, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to two years, or with fine, or with both. Putting in fear and attempting to put in fear of any injury both have been treated at par, and it is not necessary that extortion must take place because the language used is ‘in order to the committing of extortion’.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 386 - Extortion by putting a person in fear of death or grievous hurt.

Whoever commits extortion by putting any person in fear of death or of grievous hurt to that person or to any other, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

It says that whoever commits extortion by putting any person in fear of either death or of grievous hurt either to that person or to any other person, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 387 - Putting person in fear of death or of grievous hurt, in order to commit extortion

Whoever in order to the committing of extortion, puts or attempts to put any person in fear of death or of grievous hurt to that person or to any other, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Putting or attempting to put any person in fear of death or of grievous hurt in order to commit extortion has been punished under this section. The section states that whoever either puts or attempts to put any person in fear of either death or of grievous hurt to that person or to any other person, in order to the committing of extortion, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 388 - Extortion by threat of accusation of an offence punishable with death or imprisonment for life, etc

Whoever commits extortion by putting any person in fear of an accusation against that person or any other, of having committed or attempted to commit any offence punishable with death, or with [imprisonment for life], or with imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years, or of having attempted to induce any other person to commit such offence, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine; and, if the offence be one punishable under section 377 of this Code, may be punished with [imprisonment for life].

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section states that whoever commits extortion by putting any person in fear of an accusation against either that person or any other, that he had committed or attempted to commit any offence punishable with death, or with imprisonment for life, or with imprisonment for a term extending up to ten years, or that he had attempted to induce any other person to commit such offence, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine; and if the offence was one punishable under section 377, may be punished with imprisonment for life.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 389 - Putting person in fear or accusation of offence, in order to commit extortion

Whoever, in order to the committing of extortion, puts or attempts to put any person in fear of an accusation, against that person or any other, of having committed, or attempted to commit, an offence punishable with death or with [imprisonment for life], or with imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine; and, if the offence be punishable under section 377 of this Code, may be punished with [imprisonment for life].

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

It states that whoever, in order to the committing of extortion either puts or attempts to put any person in fear of an accusation, whether against that person or any other person, that he had either committed, or attempted to commit an offence punishable with death, or with imprisonment for life, or with imprisonment for a term extending up to ten years, shall be punished with simple or rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine; and if the offence be punishable under section 377, may be punished with imprisonment for life.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 390 - Robbery

In all robbery there is either theft or extortion.

When theft is robbery.

When theft is robbery.--Theft is "robbery" if, in order to the committing of the theft, or in committing the theft, or in carrying away or attempting to carry away property obtained by the theft, the offender, for that end, voluntarily causes or attempts to cause to any person death or hurt or wrongful restraint, or fear of instant death or of instant hurt, or of instant wrongful restraint.

When extortion is robbery.

When extortion is robbery.--Extortion is "robbery" if the offender, at the time of committing the extortion, is in the presence of the person put in fear, and commits the extortion by putting that person in fear of instant death, of instant hurt, or of instant wrongful restraint to that person or to some other person, and, by so putting in fear, induces the person, so put in fear then and there to deliver up the thing extorted.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section states that robbery consists of either theft or extortion. As to when theft is robbery it says that it is so if either in order to the committing of the theft, or in committing the theft, or in carrying away property obtained by the theft, or in attempting to carry away property obtained by the theft, the offender, for that end, either voluntarily causes or attempts to cause to any person either death or hurt or wrongful restraint, or fear of instant death or of instant hurt or of instant wrongful restraint.

As to when extortion is robbery it says that it is so if at the time of committing the extortion the offender is in presence of the person put in fear and commits the extortion by putting that person in fear of either instant death, or of instant hurt, or of instant wrongful restraint either to that person or to some other person, and, by so putting in fear, induces the person so put in fear to deliver up the thing extorted then and there.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 391 - Dacoity

When five or more persons conjointly commit or attempt to commit a robbery, or where the whole number of persons conjointly committing or attempting to commit a robbery, and persons present and aiding such commission or attempt, amount to five or more, every person so committing, attempting or aiding, is said to commit "dacoity".

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

Whenever five or more persons together commits or attempts to commit an act of robbery or where all the persons together commit or attempt to commit robbery, the persons present and helping amounting to five or more then every person committing the act, helping in the occurrence of the act or attempting to commit the act themselves will be equally held liable for dacoity.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 392 - Punishment for Robbery

Whoever commits robbery shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine; and, if the robbery be committed on the highway between sunset and sunrise, the imprisonment may be extended to fourteen years.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section states that whoever commits robbery shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine. The section also says that if it is a highway robbery committed between sunset and sunrise, the imprisonment may be extended to fourteen years.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 393 - Attempt to commit Robbery

Whoever attempts to commit robbery shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section states that whoever attempts to commit robbery shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine. Where the accused makes an effort to commit robbery and does all that he could do, or at least he has taken all the major steps towards its commission, but the result could not be achieved by him, he has made an attempt to commit robbery.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 394 - Voluntarily causing hurt in committing robbery

If any person, in committing or in attempting to commit robbery, voluntarily causes hurt, such person, and any other person jointly concerned in committing or attempting to commit such robbery, shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], or with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

The section states that if any person, either in committing robbery or in attempting to commit the same, voluntarily causes hurt, such person and any other person who is jointly concerned in committing or attempting to commit such robbery, shall be punished with imprisonment for life, or with rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

IPC Section 395 - Punishment for dacoity

Whoever commits dacoity shall be punished with [imprisonment for life], or with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP

Simply Put

This section prescribes punishment for dacoity. It says that whoever commits dacoity shall be punished with imprisonment for life, or with rigorous imprisonment for a term extending up to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

BACK TO THE TOP